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Types of Chemical Reactions

Types of Chemical Reactions

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Types of Chemical Reactions

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  1. Types of Chemical Reactions

  2. Chemical Reactions • Chemical reactions are grouped according to patterns in the chemical formulas.

  3. Synthesis Reactions • Two reactants combine to make a larger or more complex product.

  4. Synthesis Reactions

  5. Synthesis Reactions An example of a synthesis reaction is: 4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) 2 Al2O3(s)

  6. Decomposition Reactions • Large compounds are broken down into smaller compounds or elements.

  7. Decomposition Reactions

  8. Single Displacement Reactions • One element displaces another element in a compound, producing a new compound and a new element. A + BC → AC + B

  9. Single Displacement Reactions

  10. Single Displacement Reactions • In reactions with ionic compounds and metals, the positive ion (cation) is replaced. Copper + silver nitrate → copper (II) nitrate + silver Cu(s) + 2 AgNO3(aq) → Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag

  11. Single Displacement Reactions • Metals rarely occur naturally as pure elements → ….single displacements often purify metals in order to use them.

  12. Double Displacement Reactions • Two elements in different compounds trade places. • Two solutions that undergo a double displacement reaction produce an insoluble compound called a precipitate.

  13. Double Displacement Reactions AB + CD → AD + BC

  14. An example of a double displacement reaction is Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2 KI(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2 KNO3(aq) • Word Equation?

  15. Word Equation? Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2 KI(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2 KNO3(aq) • Lead (II) nitrate + potassium iodide  Lead (II) Iodide + Potassium nitrate

  16. Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2 KI(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2 KNO3(aq) • Precipitate?

  17. Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2 KI(aq)  PbI2(s) + 2 KNO3(aq) • Precipitate • lead (II) iodide, PbI2 • appears as a bright yellow insoluble solid.

  18. Vocabulary Synthesis Reaction Decomposition Reaction Single Displacement Reaction Double Displacement Reaction Precipitate

  19. Homework Pg. 243 # 1, 3 – 5 Course Package Pg. 22, 23

  20. Combustion

  21. What is wrong with this video?

  22. Combustion • A chemical reaction in which the fuel reacts with oxygen • Commonly known as burning • Usually results in an oxide and energy (the flame) • Oxygen is known as an oxidizer

  23. Complete Combustion of Hydrocarbons • If there is enough oxygen, all materials are burned completely Hydrocarbon + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + energy CxHy (g) + O2 (g)-> CO2(g) + H2O (g) + energy

  24. Incomplete Combustion of Hydrocarbons • If there is NOT enough oxygen, all materials are NOT burned completely Hydrocarbon + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + carbon monoxide + carbon + energy CxHy (g) + O2 (g)-> CO2(g) + H2O (g) + CO(g) + C (s) + energy Creates carbon monoxide and soot

  25. Carbon Monoxide (CO) • Odourless, colourless gas • Highly toxic • Carbon dioxide poisoning symptoms are nausea, headache, dizziness and respiratory problems • Maintain your furnace regularly and don’t leave your car running in your garage

  26. Soot • Particles of Carbon

  27. Combusting Elements • Element + Oxygen -> Element Oxide + Energy • Hydrogen • 2H2(g) + O2(g) -> 2H2O(g) + energy • Magnesium • 2Mg(s) + O2 -> 2MgO + energy

  28. Gas Tests

  29. Test for Hydrogen • If Hydrogen is exposed to a flame it reacts and produces energy in the form of a “POP” • Produces water

  30. Test for Oxygen • In Oxygen, a flame is encouraged • If a glowing splint enters a test tube of oxygen, it relights

  31. Test for Carbon Dioxide • Carbon dioxide smothers a flame • If a flaming splint is exposed to carbon dioxide, the flame extinguishes

  32. Types of Reactions • Pg 243 # 2-4, 8 • Combustion • Pg 251 # 2,3,5,6 • Read Corrosion – Pg 252-254 • Make point form notes