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Incorporating Metadata into Search UIs

Incorporating Metadata into Search UIs

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Incorporating Metadata into Search UIs

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  1. Incorporating Metadata into Search UIs Marti Hearst and Ame Elliott GUIR Summer 2000

  2. Outline • What’s wrong with search? • The Simplicity / Flexibility tradeoff • Task-oriented specialization • Vortals • Metadata-based Previews

  3. What’s right with (Web) search? • Easy to get to site home pages • Automatic category suggestion • Disambiguates terms • Isolates home pages of sites • Suggests related information

  4. What’s wrong with (Web) search? • Too many results • Wrong meanings for words • Difficult to express complex ideas / goals • Doesn’t help on the sites themselves • Doesn’t answer questions • Find campsite availability at a particular park • Pros and cons of tamoxifen for cancer treatment • Find a perfect wooden chest for your niece’s bedroom • Find prior art for this patented idea • Find a good opthamologist in your area

  5. Information Intensive Business analysis Scientific research Planning & design Quick lookup Question answering Location-based info Restaurants Local history The future of search:A Dichotomy

  6. Next generation search interfaces • More specialized in terms of • Tasks • Collections • Interfaces • Improved Technologies • Question-answering • Categorization • Information previews

  7. wizard hyperlinks text search The Simplicity / Flexibility Tradeoff

  8. Variations in Flexibility spreadsheet Choice of operators/ combinations standard GUI standard search hypertext wizard Choice of input values

  9. Standard GUIs Many operations Restricted order of operations Task-centric Completion matters Hypertext One operation (link) Operation order unrestricted Information-centric No natural stopping point Flexibility Differences

  10. Spreadsheets • Highly flexible • Several operators • Many orders to use & combine them in • What gets used? (Nardi 93) • Most people learn a very limited subset of operations, use these in stereotyped ways • Most groups depend on local experts

  11. Standard Search • Few operators (less flexible) • Many many input values (more flexible)

  12. How to Control Flexibility? Focus on the task.

  13. The Importance of the Task Results from HCI suggest the importance of taking the task into account. • Searching patent databases  Proving non-infringement • Browsing newsgroups  Finding the denial-of-service hacker • Getting all satellite news  Anticipating the competition

  14. The Importance of the Task • Example: How does Web page download time effect usability? • In one study, Spool found: (56kbit modem) • Amazon: 36 sec/page (avg) • About.com: 8 sec/page (avg) • Users rated the sites: • Fastest: Amazon • Slowest: About.com • Why?

  15. The Importance of the Task • Perceived speed • Strong correlation between perceived speed and whether the users felt they completedtheir task • Strong correlation between perceived speed and whether the users felt they always knew what to do next (scent).

  16. How to Incorporate the Task? • Goal: • Look at a work practice. Restrict the search method to support this task. • Two Mechanisms using Metadata • Restrict collection: Vortals • Restrict suggested next steps: Previews

  17. GeoRegion + Time/Date + Topic + Role Metadata types

  18. Restrict the Collection: Vortals

  19. As Web Grows, Search Degrades Solution: Specialize the collection (Vortal = Vertical Portal) • Reduces ambiguity of query word usage • Eliminates irrelevant information in advance • Allows for customization / personalization • Vortal Example: FindLaw • A vertical slice through legal text

  20. WWW Industry Intranet Desktop Cascading priority based on locality of information

  21. WWW Industry Intranet Desktop Specific slice through the data: analyst vs salesperson, or legal vs. medical

  22. WWW Industry Intranet Desktop Slice again based on task, e.g., research vs reporting

  23. A simpler example (FindLaw) • Only one topic – law • Many different legal sources

  24. Slicing by Topic Only • Generic search interface not enough • No support for legal tasks • Find prior art for patent infringement case • Find weaknesses in the application of intellectual property law in the 6th circuit court of appeals

  25. Rather than search as usual across an intersection of metadata types …Information Previews: where to go next

  26. Task-Specific Preview CombinationsA Simple Example Yahoo restaurant guide combines: • Region • Topic (restaurants) + Attributes (cuisine) • Related Information • Other attributes (ratings) • Other topics related in place and time (movies)

  27. Yellow: geographic region Green:restaurants&attributes Red: related in place & time

  28. Region State City A & E Film Theatre Music Restaurants California Eclectic Indian French Combining Information Types Assumed task: looking for evening entertainment

  29. Other Possible Combinations • Region + A&E • City + Restaurant + Movies • City + Weather • City + Education: Schools • Restaurants + Schools • …

  30. Bookstore preview combinations • topic + related topics • topic + publications by same author • topic + books of same type but related topic

  31. Pre-defined Sources • Decide in advance which collections to show results from • Places search results in context • Problem: the same metadata is used for all queries

  32. Information previews • Use the metadata to show where to go next • More flexible than canned hyperlinks • Less complex than full search • Help users see and return to what happened previously • Reduces mental work • Recognition over recall • Suggest alternatives

  33. The Importance of Informative Previews • Jared Spool’s studies (www.uie.com) • More clicks are ok if • The “scent” of the target does not weaken • If users feel they are going towards, rather than away, from their target.

  34. The Importance of Informative Previews • How to indicate “scent”? • Information organization reflects tasks • Longer, more descriptive links • Show category subtopic information • Breadth vs. depth tradeoffs • CNN categories (more scrolling) vs. Yahoo’s (more clicking) • Menu studies • Larson & Czerwinski study Intermediate breadth vs. depth generally best

  35. Problem with Previews • Standard approaches • Hand edited, predefined • Not tailored to task as it develops • Not personalized • Not dynamic

  36. A new project: FLAMENCO FLexible Access using MEtadata in Novel COmbinations • Main idea: • Preview and postview information • Determined dynamically and (semi) automatically, based on current task

  37. Flamenco: Dynamic Previews • Medical example • Allow user to select metadata in any order • At each step, show different types of relevant metadata, • based on prior steps and personal history, • include # of documents • Previews restricted to only those metadata types that might be helpful

  38. Asthma > Steroids • A steroid-induced acute psychosis in a child with athsma. • Management of steroid-dependent asthma with methotrexate. • Steroids • Pregnanes • Pregnadienes (5) • Prednisone (5) • Pregnenes • Budesonide (4) • Corticosterone (3) • Other Views • Admin & Dosage (50) • Drug Effects (20 • Therapeutic Use (25) • Risk Factors (4) • More … • User Preferred • Musculoskeletal (4) • Drug Resistance (6) • All Categories (99) 99 Documents: [Sort by author] [Sort by popularity] [Sort by Steroids] [Cluster] 1. Effect of short-course budesonide on the bone turnover of asthmatic children. 2. Effect of prednisone on response to influenza virus vaccine in asthmatic children. …

  39. Asthma > Steroids > Admin & Dosage • Dosage levels for asthmatic steroids: A survey. • Related Categories • Inhalators (40) • Emotional Effects (25) • Preferred Suppliers (30) • User Preferred • Musculoskeletal (0) • Drug Resistance (2) • All Categories (50) • Steroids • Pregnanes • Pregnadienes (3) • Prednisone (5) 50 Documents: [Sort by author] [Sort by popularity] [Sort by Dosage] [Cluster] 1. Optimal dosage levels for prednisone in the treatment of childhood asthma. 2. …

  40. Asthma > Steroids Asthma > Steroids > Budesonide Asthma > Steroids > Budesonide > Huang Asthma > Huang > Budesonide Other paths: back up and go forward

  41. Another Application Finding images for design tasks See Ame’s talk

  42. Dynamic Metadata Previews • How different from Yahoo & Amazon? • Dynamically determine what to show next • Yahoo’s combos are predefined • Amazon’s are also predefined, and limited to taste and general topic only • A way to seamlessly integrate • Related topics • User preferences (personalization) • Context-sensitivity

  43. Evaluation Methodology • Regression Test • Select a set of tasks • Use these throughout the evaluation • Start with a baseline system • Evaluate using the test tasks • Add a feature • Evaluation again • Compare to baseline • Only retain those changes that improve results