electronic principles 7 th edition albert malvino david j bates n.
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Electronic Principles 7 th Edition Albert Malvino & David J Bates

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Electronic Principles 7 th Edition Albert Malvino & David J Bates

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  1. Electronic Principles7th EditionAlbert Malvino & David J Bates • Ref. Books • Electronic devices and circuit theory – Robert Boylestad • Basic Electronics – A. P. Godse & U. A. Bakshi Rizwan H. Alad & Vasim A. Vohra

  2. Part 1 Syllabus • Chap. 6 Bipolar Junction Transistors • Chap. 7 Transistor Fundamentals • Chap. 8 Transistor Biasing • Chap. 9 Transistor AC Models • Chap. 10 Voltage Amplifiers • Chap. 11 CC and CB Amplifiers • Chap. 12 Power Amplifiers • Chap. 23 Oscillators

  3. Transistor • Three doped regions • Emitter, Base and Collector • Base region is much thinner as compared to the collector and emitter • npn and pnp • Emitter is heavily doped, Base is lightly and collector is intermediate • Collector regions is physically largest

  4. After Diffusion Before Diffusion Each of Dep. Layer barrier potential app. 0.7 V at 25o C Unbiased transistor is like two back-to-back diodes

  5. Bipolar Junction Transistors • A bipolar transistor essentially consists of a pair of PN Junction diodes that are joined back-to-back. • There are therefore two kinds of BJT, the NPN and PNPvarieties. • The three layers of the sandwich are conventionally called the Collector, Base, and Emitter.

  6. Modern Transistors

  7. NPN Bipolar Junction Transistor • One N-P (Base Collector) diode one P-N (Base Emitter) diode

  8. PNP Bipolar Junction Transistor • One P-N (Base Collector) diode one N-P (Base Emitter) diode

  9. Analogy with Transistor :Fluid-jet operated Valve

  10. *The Biased Transistor • Heavily doped emitter inject • free electrons into the base • Lightly doped base pass • electrons on to the collector • Collector collects or gathers • electrons from the base Biasing method – Emitter junction FB Collector junction RB

  11. Summary • Forward biased emitter diode, forcing the free electrons in the emitter to enter the base • Thin and lightly doped base diffuse electrons into collector • Collector, through RC and into the positive terminal of VCC

  12. Figure 5.3 Current flow in an npn transistor biased to operate in the active mode. (Reverse current components due to drift of thermally generated minority carriers are not shown.)

  13. Transistor Currents • IE – Largest emitter current • Emitter electrons flow to the collector, IC≈ IE • IB≤ 0.01 IC • KCL, IE = IC + IB

  14. BJT  and  • From the previous figure IE = IB + IC • Define dc = IC / IE • DC alpha is slightly less than 1 • Low power transistor αdc > 0.99 and High power transistor αdc > 0.95 • Define dc = IC / IB - known as a current gain

  15. BJT  and  • Then dc = IC / (IE –IC) = dc /(1- dc) • Assignment – Derive dc = dc /(1+ dc) • Then IC = dc IE &IB = (1-dc) IE Solved Example 6.1, 6.2, 6.3

  16. NPN BJT Current flow

  17. The CE connection • CE, CC and CB • CE because emitter is common to both VBB and VCC • Left loop – Base loop • Right loop – collector loop

  18. The CE connection • Base Loop, VBB source and RB – current limiting resistor • Changing VBB or RB, change base current and IB Change than IC change • IB controls IC

  19. Notation Double Subscripts Single Subscripts Used for Node voltages VB – voltage between base and ground VC and VE VCE = VC – VE VCB and VBE • Voltage source – VBB and VCC • VBE – voltage between points B and E • VCE – voltage between points C and E

  20. The Base Curve / Input Characteristics • Graph IB versus VBE • Like ordinary diode • Ohm’s low to Base loop • Ideal diode VBE = 0 and second app. VBE = 0.7 V

  21. Collector Curve / output Characteristics • Graph IC versus VCE • Ohm’s low to Collector loop • Fixed value of based current, vary VCC and measure IC and VCE

  22. Transistor Characteristics Input Characteristics Output Characteristics

  23. Active Region, Constant collector current • After collector diode reverse biased, it collect all the electrons that reach its deplation layer • Further increased VCE cannot increased IC • Collector can collect only those free electrons that emitter injects • VCE > VCE(max), collector diode break down • Power Dissipation PD = VCEIC • PD < PD(max)

  24. Operating Region of Transistor • Active region, middle region – normal operation of transistor Emitter diode – FB and Collector diode – RB • Breakdown region – transistor will be destroyed • Saturation region – rising part of curve, VCE between zero and few tenth of volt Collector diode has insufficient positive voltage to collect all the free electrons injected into the base

  25. Operating Region of Transistor • Cut off region – IB = 0 but still small collector current Because collector diode RB – Reverse minority carrier + Surface leakage current

  26. BJT Operating Regions

  27. Analogy with Transistor in Active Region: Fluid-jet operated Valve In active region this stopper does not really have noticeable effect on the flow rate Emitter Base Junction – FB Collector Base Junction – RB

  28. Analogy with Transistor Cutoff Fluid-jet operated Valve Emitter Base Junction – RB Collector Base Junction – RB

  29. Analogy with Transistor Saturation Fluid-jet operated Valve The valve is wide open; changing valve position a little bit does not have much influence on the flow rate. E-B Junction – FB C-B Junction – FB