Child Welfare Committee Board of Directors May 1, 2014 | 9 am to Noon Los Angeles, CA
Agenda Review • Welcome & Introductions • Agenda & Minutes Review • CDSS, CWDA & NASW Reports • Work Plan Update • Hiring Trends & Implications • Workforce Development & Training Discussions • Organizational Culture & Climate • Simulations in Training (DCFS University) • Statewide Issues Update (Katie A., CA CW Core Practice Model,Field Initiative, Common Core) • Items for Permanent Committees
Standing Reports • CDSS • CWDA • NASW
Work Plan: 2013 – 15 Work Plan Update • Four areas in Work Plan • Distance Learning/Technology and Learning (via writing course, Technology Plan) • Field Instruction (via Field Initiative) • Integration of IV-E and In-Service Training (via Field Initiative and Common Core 3.0 work) • Well-Being in a Child Welfare Context (Definition of well-being)
Work Plan: 2013 – 15 Work Plan Update Technology Plan • Builds upon our existing website and communication improvements • Four areas of focus: • Organize learning resources and make them accessible • Create and test eLearning and other formats for training and educational use • Better connect people with like interests to share work • Improve our ability to broadcast events in real-time on the web
Learning Object Repository (LOR) • Re-conceptualizes educational, training and curricular tools and resources as Learning Objects • Organizes and tags learning objects with the assistance of librarians and curators • Creates a simple, intuitive interface to search for learning objects, share them and add to them
Hiring Update and Implications • Review of County Hiring Report • Review of IVE Hiring Report • Discussion of implications for Workforce Development Committee to consider
County Hiring Report Methods • Track last 3 months, next 6 months estimates, and total authorized FTEs • Response rate lower this period (31 of 58 counties) • Reporting period from 1/1/14 to 8/31/14 Highlights • Hiring remains very high in all regions • As a proportion of the total workforce, hiring remains steady in counties reporting
IV-E Hiring Summary • MSWHiring Highlights • Overall hiring of IV-E Grads has increased this year after a steady consistent pattern since 2009. • Most regions have increases in hiring with the exception of Central and Northern. • BASW Hiring Highlights • Hiring of BASWs has continued to improve relative except for Southern schools. • 63% this year 58% last year vs. 29% two years ago.
Hiring Trends • Implications of County and IV-E Hiring Trends • Title IV-E Education? • In-Service Training?
Workforce Development & Training Discussions Organizational Culture and Climate Simulations and Training (LA DCFS University)
Organization Culture and Climate May 2014
Importance of Organizational Factors: improving quality of service and retention of staff “The quality of services provided in child welfare is assumed to be only as good as the competence of the professional child welfare employees that provide those services.” (Ewalt, 1991) The annual turnover rate of child welfare employees is estimated to be between 20% and 40% (Cyphers, 2001; Reagh, 1994; Rycraft, 1994; U.S. General Accounting Office, 2003; American Public Human Services Association of America, 2005). Stability of workforce is a key factor is providing high quality service. Multifaceted reasons for leaving, worker and organizational factors. Culture particularly important as child welfare services are “soft skills” based. Factors that strengthen professional organizational culture enhance the retention of child welfare employees (Ellett, 2009; Ellett& Ellett, 1997; Hopkins, Mudrick, & Rudolph, 1999).
Defining terms: Organizational Culture • Simply conceptualized as the way we do business around here. (James & McIntyre, 1996; Hemmelgarn, Glisson & James, 2006) • Commonly defined as a set of shared, latent assumptions, beliefs, values and norms that influence the espoused values, attitudes, and behaviors of organizational members(Ellet, 2008; Denison, 1996; Rousseau, 1990; Reichers & Schneider, 1990; Schein, 1992; Trice & Beyer, 1993). • Property of the organization vs. the individual • Layered construct (Schneider, 2000) • Can have subcultures within groups, units, locations (Trice & Beyer, 1993)
Defining terms: Organizational Climate • Simply conceptualized as How it feels around here. • Considered to be a property of the individual Psychological vs. Organizational • Psychological Climate is workers perception of impact of work on well-being (e.g., emotional exhaustion, role conflict; James, James & Ashe, 1990). • Employees agreement of this perception creates Organizational Climate.
Culture and Climate • Disagreement on conceptualizations – are culture and climate distinct or related? If related, how? • Content analysis identified 32 definitions of climate and 54 different definitions of culture (Verbeke, Volgering & Hessels, 1998) • No real empirical evidence about their relationship (Payne, 2000; Schneider, Gunnarson, & Niles-Jolly, 1994; Tesluk, Farr, & Klein, 1997; Virtanen, 2000) • More work needed to understand how they are different, practically speaking (Glisson, 2000). ATTRACTIVE CONCEPTUALIZATION BUT…
Some research on the impact of culture and climate Culture and climate associated with more positive work attitudes, better outcomes for children & higher service quality (more continuity): • More positive team climates (less depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, role climate) associated with more positive work attitudes (Glisson & James, 2002). • Children served by mental health teams with more constructive culture were more likely to receive needed services when compared with less constructive cultures (Glisson, Dukes & James, 2006) • More engaged organizational climate significantly improves outcomes in child welfare organizations (Glisson & Green, 2011)
Some research on the impact of culture and climate Retention • More favorable perceptions of culture linked to greater intention to stay (Westbrook et al. 2006) • Links between human caring, self-efficacy beliefs, work morale, job satisfaction, and elements of professional organizational culture and employees’ intentions to remain employed in child welfare (Ellett, 2000; Ellett et al., 2003; Ellett & Millar, 2005; Ellis et al., 2007). Organizational Change: • Studies in business link culture to affecting meaningful organizational change (Cavanagh, 1997; Fullan, 1993; Reichers & Schneider,1990).
Some research on the impact of culture and climate Organizational Change & Practice Change: • Studies in business link culture to affecting meaningful organizational change (Cavanagh, 1997; Fullan, 1993; Reichers & Schneider,1990). • In mental health agencies, Constructive culture was associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption of EBP; poor organizational climates associated with perceived divergence of usual practice and EBP (Aarons & Sawitzky, 2006)
Scales and Instruments. . .some examples • Child Welfare Organizational Culture Inventory (CWOCI) measures administrative support, supervisory support, autonomy, professionalism, professional sharing and support, beliefs, and ceremonies and rituals • Organization Culture Profile (OCP) measures innovation, attention to detail, outcome orientation, aggressiveness, supportiveness, emphasis on rewards, team orientation, and decisiveness.
Scales and Instruments. . .some examples • Parker Climate Scale: Role Dimensions (Ambiguity, Conflict, Overload) Job Dimensions Importance, Autonomy, Challenge) Organizational Dimensions (Innovation, Justice, Support) Supervisor Dimensions (Trust and Support, Goal Emphasis, Work Facilitation) Workgroup Dimensions (Warmth, Pride, Cooperation) • NICWWI’s Comprehensive Organizational Health Assessment Instrument Summary (subscales taken from other organization scales) Job Satisfaction, Supervision (Knowledge, Support & Skill), Professional Sharing and Support, Team Cohesion, Shared Vision, Leadership (Distributive, Adaptive, Inclusive, & Outcome-focused), Readiness for Change (Response to Change, Learning Culture, & Change Management), Learning Organization, Professional Development and Preparation for Work , Inclusivity, Physical Environment, Community Resources, Public Perception, Intent to Stay, Self-Efficacy, Coping Strategies, Historical Trauma , Secondary Trauma Scale, Psychological Climate Scale
Culture change through in-service training • Theory on Organizational Culture and Climate has been integrated into the emerging CA Core Practice Model, and will be supported by the Statewide Training System via the Common Core and other related advanced training. • Core Practice Model will specifically reference attending to organizational culture and climate, and supporting a competent workforce • Common Core will introduce these concepts in the Core Practice Model • As the Core Practice Model is implemented, leadership and management training will address more advanced topics and issues.
Culture change through the Field Model • Creating stronger partnerships between the agency and the university • “The field instruction initiative . . . has greatly improved our agency field program over the past few years through regular collaboration, support, and mentoring.”(Intern Coordinator/Analyst, Butte County Children’s Service”
Culture change through the Field Model • Creating stronger partnerships between the agency and the university • “The last few years of participation in the Solution Focused Supervision Training project has allowed our department to expand the already excellent intern program we have in partnership with Chico State University, Chico. The support group process has increased the level of quality supervision for our field instructors. The support group process for the interns has provided an environment where they can address issues and form connections with fellow interns that can support them in their professional lives.” (Program Manager, Butte County Children’s Service)
Culture change through the Field Model • Creating stronger partnerships between the agency and the university “There has been a growing acceptance of the idea of "partnership" and openness at DHS to working together. DHS particularly appreciates the availability of faculty members to support the field supervision process.” (Title IV-E PC, CSU Bakersfield)
What we can do moving forward. . . Future Directions in CalSWEC’s Research & Evaluation
Gathering more data to investigate the impact of culture and climate among other variables Climate Factors (Social-Community and Economic) Selection (e.g., recruitment and interview processes, Realistic Job Previews,) Org. / Agency influences (e.g., culture, climate) Performance Management (e.g., rewards, evaluation) Retention Academic Program Experience (e.g., satisfaction with program, preparation for job) Field Work: Experience (e.g., application of practice behaviors, satisfaction) Student Variables @ Pre-service (e.g., resilience, gender) New Hire Training (e.g., competence) Early job experiences (e.g., satisfaction, competence) Later job satisfaction/ effectiveness (e.g., satisfaction, competence) Child & Family Outcomes Ongoing Training Support (Peer, Family, Coach Supervisor, Organizational) Support (Academic, Peer, Family) Workplace variables (in-service / RTA) University Variables
Proposed data gathering from participating counties • Possible areas to survey county workforce: • Questions tailored to county’s needs • Worker attitudes to their job: (current job satisfaction, relationship with supervisor, quality of supervision, support, relationship/experience with the community they serve) • Worker attitudes to agency: (commitment to agency, commitment to CW, perceptions of org. culture) • Worker proficiency: (self-ratings of proficiency) • Worker outlook: (self efficacy, secondary stress, anxiety, depression, self care strategies) • Other: (on-the-job training experiences, professional development, retrospective on education/FE) Existing data • HR data • demographics, Title IV E status, hire information, performance reviews, promotion, salary information • Administrative Data • process and outcome data Possible interviews for richer data
What we can do moving forward. . . • Discussion: • What can we do to foster conversation and dialogue on improving culture and climate in CWS? • How might we generate more interest in assessing and evaluating culture and climate?
Statewide Workforce Issues • Katie A. Settlement Learning Collaborative • California Child Welfare Core Practice Model • Common Core 3.0 • Field Initiative
Katie A. Learning Collaborative • CalSWEC is coordinating the process with multiple partners (RTAs, Chadwick Center, CDSS, DHCS etc.) • Regional learning sessions are now in process, led by the RTAs with assistance from mental health partners • Online Learning Collaborative Toolkit is online, and CalSWEC is actively collecting and posting resources: http://calswec.berkeley.edu/toolkits/child-welfare-mental-health-learning-collaborative-katie
CA Child Welfare Core Practice Model • Continues to build on the great work already taking place by integrating key elements of existing initiatives and proven practices including CAPP and Katie A.
CA Child Welfare Core Practice Model • March 6-7 CWDA Workshop gained consensus for Theoretical Framework, Values & Principles, Practice Components and Elements • Partners also included in the discussions/activity, including Deans and Directors, consumers, mental health. • Currently planning for more extensive outreach and involvement to determine Practice Behaviors • Review of Communications Materials
Common Core 3.0 • Assessment Block of curricula currently under construction, led by CalSWEC • Vetting of this block will commence in November, 2014 • Piloting will begin in March of 2015 • Assessment Block will be implemented in July of 2015 • Challenges: Field-based training capacity; culture shift to blended online/classroom/ field-based training.