America at 1800 Jefferson, Madison, and the War of 1812
Quiz: Jefferson • How are Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans different from Hamiltonian Federalists? Vision of society and View of Constitution • Explain how the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions are a response to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Quiz: Jefferson's Presidency • America at 1800-1850 Massive Growth- in what areas? • Revolution of 1800- Federalists lose • Republican Values • Reduction of the Federal Government and Federal Debt • “Less is more” • The Supreme Court under John Marshall • Marbury vs. Madison • Louisiana Purchase • Burr conspiracy • Neutral rights • Impressment • Embargo
Test items • Republican Vision/Jefferson/embargo/reduce the budget • Revolution of Jefferson/overturn Federal policies • Jefferson/a great politician • Ended internal taxes • Government spending • National debt • Jefferson and the court • Judiciary act of 1801 • Mabry Vs. Madison • Louisiana Purchase reasons • Aaron Burr • War of 1812 causes, War Hawks/Clay/Calhoun/ • Tecumseh’s goals
Essay Question • The War of 1812 was foisted upon an unwilling nation by a Congress controlled by a group of congressmen called the “War Hawks” whose main goal was the conquest of Canada. • Assess the validity of this statement using the documents and your knowledge of US History
Sectionalism Developing • Northeast- Manufacturing=want to send goods West • Western Farmers agriculture=want to send goods East • Problem of Transportation= roads, canals, river transportation important-1800-1850 building transportation networks. • Problem: Spain controls mouth of Mississippi until the French reacquire Louisiana under Napoleon and US make the Louisiana Purchase-1803
Jefferson Presidency 1801-1809 • Lawyer, diplomat, scientist, philosopher • Interested in Agriculture • Supported innovations and technology • “Where a new invention is supported by well-known principles, and promises to be useful, it ought to be tried.”
How is Jefferson’s Election “Revolutionary” or the Revolution of 1800? • Peaceful transfer of power- was not common • It was a watershed for the Republic in that the opposing political parties would cooperate with a change in leadership • Some will say, changes Jefferson advocates will be revolutionary. • Jefferson as a common man- open to common people • Wants to remove the Federalist program and reduce the size of the Federal government
Jefferson’s Social Vision • Wanted to see individuals own land • Land was the key to democracy- • didn’t believe that cities and industry were ideal • Recognized manufacturing was necessary • “The cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens”
Jefferson’s Plan • Wanted to return governing power to the states • Economics- • Thought Federalist enacted too many protectivetariffs – that hurt farmer and favored merchants • Hated the national debt- $112 million by 1801 • Gallatin was his Secretary of Treasury- proposed cutting spending to balance the budget • Federal jobs, military, navy budget cut • End internal taxes/excise taxes
Quiz: Jefferson and the Court • Judiciary Act of 1801 • John Marshall • Marbury v Madison • Judicial Review
Speaking of “Midnight Judges” • Republican from Kentucky called Adams’s tactics "the last effort of the most wicked, insidious and turbulent faction that ever disgraced our political annals."
Jefferson vs. The Court • A Federalist law is passed, Judiciary Act 1801 • Created 16 new Federal judgeships • Adams appointed a number of judges before he left office (Midnight Appointments) • Jefferson pushes republican controlled congress to repeal the act and not seat Federalist judges • However the Supreme Court is packed with Federalist and will rule against Republican issues
John Marshall Chief Justice 1801-1835 link • Appointed as Chief Justice during last days of Adams' term • Most important Chief Justice in U.S. history; served for about 34 years • Molded or developed the power of the Judiciary
John Marshall Chief Justice 1801-1835 link • Key leader, “non-partisan” Federalist • Strengthened the Federal Government- at expense of states • Advanced the interests of the rich • Supported the legality of contracts • Supported the concept of Federal government supremacy over states • Dartmouth Case- overrode a state court
Marbury vs Madison, 1803Link "Midnight judge" William Marbury sued (on the behalf of several other judges) for the delivery of his commission that was being held up by the new Secretaryof StateMadison. Madison was ordered by Jefferson to withhold appointments of Judiciary Act o 1801 Marbury asked the Supreme Court should force the president to give him his job. The Judiciary Act of 1789 said Court had a the power to compel the executive to act… Marshall said 1789 Act Congress gave too much authority to Court…by giving the Court the right to enforce appointments (only the executive branch had right to enforce the law) Ruling established a precedent Supreme Court power to rule a law by Congress unconstitutional Judicial Review (the concept that the Supreme Court can rule laws unconstitutional)
Marshall • Marshall Said: • “Marbury had a right to the commission but- the court had no authority to order Madison to deliver it.”
Louisiana Purchase • 1801 France again controls the Louisiana Territory • Jefferson wants to expand US territory • Sends James Monroe to France to Negotiate the purchase of New Orleans because French tried to close the port to Western farmers • Monroe signed the deal with Napoleon 1803 • The deal created a dilemma for Jefferson, he believed in strict interpretation of Constitution, which means the government only does what the Constitution says it should do. • Contrast to Hamilton's Elastic Clause assertion
Burr Conspiracy • Burr, a scoundrel, and traitor- Killed Hamilton in 1804 (Federalists essentially die with hammy) • Jefferson broke with Burr early- • Burr became involved with a group of Federalists to create a separate country 1st with New York and NJ then later involving Mexico. (to secede) • Jefferson tries to have Burr prosecuted, Burr eventually escapes to Europe.
War of 1812 Quiz Choose three of the following: • What was the Embargo • Who wanted it and why? • Who were the “War Hawks” • List three mains causes of the War of 1812- • What role did Andrew Jackson play in the War of 1812
Winds of War • Longtime problem of American merchant ships being seized and sailors forcibly impressed into service by British Navy, continues • 1793-1811 1,000 sailors were removed from US ships by British • Jefferson/Republicans respond with the Embargo Act of 1807- stopping all trade- • Results in immediate disaster • American agriculture prices fall-over supply- • Smuggling begins and Jefferson tries to suppress with Navy and Troops
Jefferson to Madison • Embargo didn’t work • Jefferson never ended the national debt • Madison, Jefferson’s Secretary of State, in 1809-1816, is elected and Jefferson, before leaving office, asks Congress to repeal the Embargo and replace it with Non-Intercourse Act
Madison 1809-1816 • Republican, Jefferson’s Secretary of State • Picked up where Jefferson left off • Trying to deal with European conflicts • British interference with trade continued-seizures and impressments • Western incitement of Indians
Madison 1808-1816 • Non-Intercourse Act 1809- in an effort to repair damage by the embargo • Congress passes law to prohibit trade with Britain and France, but allow trade with other countries • Americans want Neutral Trading Rights
War of 1812 • Causes • Invasion of Canada • Hartford Convention • Conduct of the war • Treaty of Ghent • New Orleans
War of 1812 Causes • War Hawks- American legislators advocated war with Britain to regain American trade and secure Western lands/ and even invade Canada • Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky • Congressman John C. Calhoun of South Carolina • Blamed Great Britain for inciting the Indians in Ohio
Ohio Indian Trouble • White settlement of Ohio increases • 1800=5600 • 1810= 24, 500 • 1820=147,000 • Indian Tribes pushed West are angry about treaties and White settlement
Quiz: War of 1812 • Who was Tecumseh- what should we know about him? • Hartford Convention- • What was it? • What group participated in it? • What did they want to do?
Frontier • Two Tribal leaders, The “Prophet” and Tecumseh • Shawnee twin brothers- wanted their people to resist the white invasion and live separately • They try to form an Indian confederation • William Henry Harrison and the US Army kill “Prophet” at the Battle of Tippecanoe 1811 • Americans believe the British are helping the Indians from forts in the Ohio valley
Madison Wins Election 1812 • June 1812 War is Declared • Federalist against the war but out voted by Western and Southern Republicans • Americans Invade of Canada • Through Detroit • Great Lakes Oliver Hazard Perry- defeats a British fleet Lake Erie • But few lasting effects
Military Issues • British Invade through the Chessapeake and burn Washington D.C. • Fort McHenry, Baltimore Harbor, Star Spangled Banner • Hero Andrew Jackson- defeats Creek indians in the Mississippi area and then goes on to defend Jan. 1815 New Orleans from invasion- great victory will bring him national prominence
Hartford Convention 1814 (Connecticut) • Federalist opposition delegates from New England meet to discuss complaints regarding the War and the Republican leadership • Some argue for secession • After the War Federalist are marginalized even more than before.
Treaty of Ghent • Treaty of Ghent, (Belgium) signed December 1814- • British evacuate the Ohio Valley, no major consequences • Indians lose, usually move West , lose large areas of land- in Northwest • Rush-Bagot Agreement- de-militarized the Great Lakes
Quiz: Madison’s Economic Plans • Summarize the two major economic initiatives Madison supported-
The Madisonian Platform • After the War there is a huge feeling of Nationalism- • The idea of loyalty or devotion to a nation, or • Pride in one’s country, usually excessive • Madison unveils a program to develop the country through the leadership of the Federal Government: • Military, banking, protective tariffs, internal improvements (roads, canals), and a national university
Madison’s Platform • Military • Banking- Chartering the Second Bank of the United States -first bank, time ran out and paper money issued caused inflation Bank is created 1816- • became economically strong • McCullah vs. Maryland- Marshall-ruled that the Bank was legal and states could not tax it. • Protective Tariff- During Embargo, manufacturing in Northeast develops, Brits produce more goods, cheaper, and faster • Textile industrialists, (Lowell) support tariff • Even Calhoun of South Carolina, supported the tariff, because of nationalistic or patriotic reasons.