Construction, Development and Applications of CERNET: China Education and Research Network Jianping WU Director of CERNET Technical Board Director of CERNET Network Center Prof. of Computer Science, Tsinghua University January 1999
Outline • Internet in China • China Education and Research Network • Growth of CERNET • Major Applications of CERNET • CERNET: Major Infrastructure for Distance Learning in China • Important Issues • Future of CERNET
CANET GE CRN CA X.25 TUnet HK Others Europe Internet in ChinaInternational Links in China(before 1994) 1988 1994
IHEP KEK Sprint NCFC CERNET CAREN BUCT MPT GBN Sprint Internet in ChinaInternational Links in China (1998) 64 K 1994 64 K - 2M to USA 1994 3 X 2M, 128 K to USA, 64K to HK, 64K to Germany 1995 64K from 1995-1997 1995 2 X 2M+45M to USA, 256K +128 K to other 1995 2M+256K 1996
Nation-wide Internet Service Providers in China • There are four Nation-wide Internet Service Providers in China • CERNET: China Education and Research Network • CSTNET: China Science and Technology Network • CHINANET: China Public Computer Internet • GBNNET: Golden Bridge Information Network • To be permit to connect with Internet backbone directly, but have to use China Telecom international half circuit • Connect each other, no exchange so far
China Internet Connectivity's Today JANET and Super JANET Another Europe Countries 512K U K 2M Canada 64K Hong Kong CERNET 512K 64K Germany 2M 10M >2M X 3 2M CSTNET U. S. A. > 2M+45M CHINANET Japan 64K 2M CHINAGBN Singapore
China Internet (near future) ISPs CERNET CSTNET global Internet CNIX ChinaNet GBN
Introduction of CERNET • The first nation-wide academic computer network in China started in 1994 • The CERNET project is funded by the Chinese government and directly managed by the Ministry of Education • The objectives of the CERNET Establish a nation-wide education and research network infrastructure to connect all of the universities, institutes, and schools in China using the up-to-date techniques
First Phase of CERNET(1994-1997) • A nation-wide backbone which connects eight regional networks and connects them to the global Internet • A national network center • Ten regional network centers • Network management system • Internet applications and China information resources and applications
CERNET Organization • Administration Board • Technical Board • National Network Center • Regional Network Center • Campus Network
CERNET Structure Internet CERNET Backbone .edu.cn Regional network Regional network Regional network campus network campus network campus network campus network tsinghua.edu.cn pku.edu.cn
National Network Center • Located in Tsinghua University • Network Operation Center (NOC) • Network Information Center (NIC) • High Performance Computing Center (HPCC) • Accounting • Education and Training Center (ETC) • Others: Telecommunication, Customer Support, Development etc.
Regional Network Center • Regional Network NOC • Regional Network NIC • Regional Network ETC • Customer Support • Regional Network Design and Development
Shenyang 沈阳 2M，1996年10月 USA 美国 Beijing 北京 128K Xian 西安 Shanghai 上海 Wuhan 武汉 Nanjing 南京 Chengdu 成都 64K Guangzhou 广州 CERNET Backbone in 1995
Shenyang 沈阳 2M USA 美国 Beijing 北京 128K Xian 西安 Shanghai 上海 Nanjing 南京 512K Wuhan 武汉 Chengdu 成都 64K Guangzhou 广州 CERNET Backbone in 1997
CERNET Structure (1996) National Backbone Regional Backbone Regional Backbone …… Campus ... Campus Campus ... Campus
2nd Phase of CERNET (1998-1999) • All university and institutes (1000+) will be connected to the CERNET • A lot of school will be connected to the CERNET • High speed backbone and Internet link , regional networks and campus networks • New applications • Become a very important part of China national information infrastructure
Germany 德国 64K UK 英国 512K 2M＋2M 沈阳 2M USA 美国 北京 128K 2M X 7 西安 上海 2X7M 南京 256K 武汉 成都 64K＋512K Hong Kong 香港 广州 CERNET Backbone in 1999
CERNET Structure (1998) National Backbone Regional Backbone Regional Backbone …… ... Province Backbone Campus Campus ... Province Backbone Campus Campus Campus ... Campus ...
The Possible Scale of CERNET • China has 9.6 million km2 territory, 1.2 billion population, 30+ provinces, 500+ cities • China has 1,020 universities with 100,000 graduate students and 2+ million undergraduate students • China has 40,000+ middle schools with 60+ million students • China has 160,000 primary schools with 122 million pupils • The CERNET will be the largest education and research network in the world.
Major Technology of CERNET • Backbone of CERNET • Router + link • IP over DDN, Satellite link, SDH and Fiber • Campus Network • TCP/IP protocol and Web application • Router + Ethernet • Fast Ethernet switch, FDDI switch • ATM • Routing switch
Major CERNET Applications • MIS for Universities • Information Resource Constructions • Admit Students and Job Opportunity • Distance Computing • Distance Learning • Digital Library • Virtual Research Laboratory and Center
CERNET: Major Infrastructure for Distance Learning in China • Very large TV education organization • Satellite communication still importance and useful in China distance learning • Internet and Web-based Technology is the future of distance learning in China • Needs of the Learners have Changed • CERNET will be major infrastructure
Needs of the Learners have Changed Traditional • Institutional learning • Time out for training • School & government dominated • Time & place dependent • Concentrated expertise • Minimum standard • Limited learning choices • Full term courses Information Age • Global learning • Fusion of work & learning • Individual & employer driven • Time & place independent • Dispersed expertise • Personal best • Mass customization • Bytes of learning
Technology Alters theLearning landscape Audio Conferencing Video Conferencing Satellite Chat Rooms Web-based Training Video Tape/Audio Tape CD-ROM Internet/Intranet VOD Email Different Place Classroom Kiosk Learning Center Library Lab Same Place Same Time Different Time
Important Issues • Government Policy • Acceptable Use Policy • Telecommunication Pricing • Management and Security • Chinese Culture • The Future of China’s Internet
Government Policy • Safety and Protection Regulations of the Computer Information System of the People Republic of China (1993) • Temporary Rules for the Management of the International Links of the Computer Information Network of the People Republic of China (1996)
CERNET Acceptable Use Policy • Management Regulations of China Education and Research Network • China Education and Research Network Safety Management Contract • China Education and Research Network Users Regulations
Telecommunication Pricing • Telecommunication Market still isn’t open • Very high Telecommunication Price • International half circuit has 3-5 times than international market in price • Nation-wide transmission line has 10-15 times than international market in price • China Telecom run CHINANET, also run international half circuit and nation-wide transmission line
CERNET Operation Model • Government support construction, but not operation • CERNET operate ourselves started in 1997 • Nation-wide access • For 64K connection, 4800 RMB/per month • For >64K connection, 9600 RMB/per month • International input • 5 RMB/per MBytes
The Future of China’s Internet • Hope open telecommunication market • Internet impact on China communication infrastructure • Internet impact on China education • Internet impact on the Chinese culture and Chinese society. • Make China contribution to the global Internet community.
5,076,000,000 Projected Human Population Human Population Projected Internet Users 2,538,000,000 1,510,912,000 755,456,000 507,904,000 302,080,000 151,040,000 75,520,000 Projected Internet Hosts 37,760,000 18,880,000 9,440,000 Internet Users 4,720,000 2,360,000 1,180,548 Measured Internet Hosts 590,274 365,345 234,740 161,434 92,834 63,267 43,799 26,141 9,805 5,089 2,810 1,961 1,024 562 213 2001 year 81 82 83 84 86 87 88 85 90 89 91 93 94 97 92 98 95 99 96 8 5 6 8 10 10 11 12 7 3 10 6 6 1 6 6 6 month 6 6 6 Source: MIDS, Austin TX, based on historical data 2001: Users = Human Population ?