Natural disaster Geological disasters Earthquakes Volcanic eruptions
A geological disaster • …occurs when : • Natural geological processes impact on our activities, • Geological disasters however, still inflict a major economic and social cost to the province. • Such disasters are to differing degrees avoidable or preventable, if they are identified quite early!
a potential disaster A geological hazard is a potential disaster. This is mainly due to its situation : • A. In a inactive seismic area, • B. Because of low population density. The Province of Newfoundland and Labrador is fortunate in that. Such impacts are minor compared to many other parts of the world.
Newfoundland and Labrador History Newfoundland and Labrador’s inhabitants, can be traced back over 9,000 years to the Maritime Archaic Indians, appropriately named due to their reliance on the sea. Over the years, they were displaced by the Palaeoeskimo people, the L’nu, and Innuit in Labrador and the Beothuks on Newfoundland.Newfoundland and Labrador was the first area of North America'sAtlanticcoastline to be explored byEuropeans, beginning with the Vikings in 1001. Innui Innui
Giovanni Caboto,John Cabot, Jean Cabot, Juan Caboto. • British explorer, John Cabot, arrived in Newfoundland at Bonavista in 1497 and claimed the land as a British colony for King Henry VIII. • The non-Italian forms are not wrong. They reflect the way contemporary 15th-century documents described him. • In 1610, the first colony was established at Cupids by London and Bristol merchants.
Volcano • A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magna, volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface. • Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. • Volcanoes are usually not created, where two tectonic plates slide past one another. • Volcanoes can also form, where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust in the interiors of plates. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "Plate hypothesis“.
Italy The word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy, whose name in turn originates from Vulcan, the name of a god of fire in Roman mythology
Cross-section through a stratovolcano • 1. Large magma chamber2. Bedrock3. Conduit (pipe)4. Base5. Sill6. Dike7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano8. Flank 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano10. Throat11. Parasitic cone12. Lava flow13. Vent14. Crater15. Ash cloud
Minoan eruption This eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history . The eruption devastated the island of Thera (Santorini) including the Minoan settlement at Akrotiri - as well as communities and agricultural areas on nearby islands and on the coast of Crete. • Satellite image of Thera, November 21, 2000
akrotiri • The eruption seems to have inspired certain Greek myths and may have caused turmoil in Egypt.[ • Additionally, it has been speculated that the Minoan eruption and the destruction of the city at Akrotiri , provided the basis inspired Plato’s story of Atlantis
Atlantis - Just a “story” ? For over two thousand years, the story of Atlantis was just a story. Then, in the late 1800s, an American named Ignatius Donnelly became fascinated with the story and wrote a book called Atlantis, the Antediluvian World, which became a bestseller. Ignatius studied flood history from Egypt to Mexico and believed that Plato was recording an actual natural disaster. Since then, several books have been written about the lost city. Read more: http://www.kidzworld.com/article/960-history-the-lost-city-of-atlantis#ixzz1IYCQoj6j
...in to the ocean In Plato's account, • Atlantis was a naval power • lying "in front of the Pillars of Hercules" • that conquered many parts of Western Europe and Africa, • 9,000 years before the time of Solon, or approximately 9600 BC. • After a failed attempt to invade Athens, • Atlantis sank into the ocean • "in a single day and night of misfortune".
Plato, describes the Atlantians as great engineers and architects. There were palaces, harbors, temples and docks. The capital city was built on a hill and surrounded by rings of water, which were joined by tunnels large enough for a ship to sail through. A huge canal connected the outer rings of water to the ocean. On the outskirts of the capital city there were huge fields, where farmers grew the city's food. Past the field there were mountains where wealthy villagers lived. Plato goes great detail about the amazing buildings - complete with hot and cold fountains, shared dining halls and stone walls covered with precious metals. Living In Atlantis
Older traditions • Scholars dispute whether and how much Plato's story was inspired by older traditions. Some scholars argue Plato drew upon memories of past events such as the Thera eruption or the Trojan War, while others insist, that he took inspiration from contemporary events like the destruction of Helike in 373 b.c, or the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC ]
Atlantis • Athanasius Kircher's map of Atlantis, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. • From MundusSubterraneus 1669, published in Amsterdam. • The map is oriented with south at the top. Atlantis (in Greek, Ἀτλαντὶςνῆσος, “Is the island of Atlas") is a legendary island first mentioned in Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias.
Earthquakes • An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust, that creates seismic waves. • The seismicity or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.
Richter magnitude • Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers. • The moment magnitude ( similar over the range of validity of the Richter scale) of an earthquake is conventionally reported. • With magnitude 3 or lower earthquakes, being mostly almost imperceptible. • Magnitude 7 and over potentially causing serious damage over large areas, depending on their depth.
Magnitude scale • The Richter magnitude scale, also known as the local magnitude (ML) scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. • For example, an earthquake that measures 5.0 on the Richter scale has a shaking amplitude 10. • The effective -upper limit of measurement- for local magnitude ML is just below 9 for local magnitudes and just below 10 for moment magnitude when applied to large earthquakes
Magnitude 9,0 ! The largest earthquakes, in historic times, have been of magnitude slightly over 9. Although, there is no limit to the possible magnitude. • The most recent large earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or larger, was the earthquake in Japan in the 11th of March 2011. • It was the largest Japanese earthquake, since records began. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale. • The shallower an earthquake, costs more damage to structures. All else being equal.
Hydrological disasters Floods Limnic eruptions Tsunamis
Floods Flash flooding caused by heavy rain falling in a short amount of time. A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water.
Seasonal changes • Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water, escapes its usual boundaries. • The size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes.
Floods in Athens • Glyfada & Syngrou
Where is the parking? • A parking lot sign tops the flood waters of Elbe river in Meissen, Germany, 16 August 2010. • Elbe river gauge amounted to 4.84 metres: means 2.84 metres above normal water level.
A limnic eruption, • A limnic eruption -also referred to as a lake overturn- is a rare type of natural disaster in which carbon dioxide (CO2) suddenly erupts from deep lake water, suffocating wildlife, livestock and humans. • Such an eruption may also cause tsunami, in the lake as the rising CO2 displaces water. Scientists believe landslides, volcanic activity, or explosions can trigger, such an eruption. • Lakes in which such activity occurs may be known as limnically active lakes or exploding lakes. Some features of limnically active lakes include: • CO2-saturated incoming water
Limnic eruption II Some features of limnically active lakes include: CO2-saturated incoming water A cool lake bottom indicating an absence of direct volcanic interaction with lake waters An upper and lower thermal layer with differing CO2 saturations. Proximity to areas with volcanic activity, scientists have recently determined, from investigations into the mass casualties in the 1980s at Lake Monoun and Lake Nyos, that limnic eruptions and volcanic eruptions, although indirectly related, are actually separate types of disaster events.
Lake Monoun & Nyos On August 15, 1984, the lake exploded in a limnic eruption, which resulted in the release of a large amount of carbon dioxide, that killed 37 people. At first, the cause of the deaths was a mystery, and causes such as terrorism were suspected. Further investigation and a similar event- two years later- at Lake Nyos led to the currently accepted explanation. Nyos , is a deep lake [208 m] , high on the flank of an inactive volcano, in the Oku volcanic plain, along the Cameroon line of volcanic activity. A natural dam of volcanic rock contains the lake waters.
common form... • Fire, in its most common form, as a result in conflagration, which has the potential to cause physical damage, through burning. • Fire is an important process, that affects ecological systems, across the globe. The positive effects of fire include stimulating growth and maintaining various ecological systems. • The negative effects of fire, include: • increased water purity, 2. • increased soil erosion, • 3. increase in atmospheric pollutants, • 4. increased hazard to human life.
tetrahedron • Fires start, when a flammable material, in combination with a sufficient quantity of an oxidizer, such as oxygen gas, is exposed to a source of heat and is able to sustain , a rate of rapid oxidation, that produces a chain reaction. This is commonly called: The fire tetrahedron: Fire cannot exist without all of these elements in place and in the right proportions. For example, a flammable liquid will start burning, only if the fuel and oxygen are in the right proportions. Some fuel-oxygen mixes may require a catalyst, which enables the reactants to combust more readily.
Fires in Greece June 28, 2007: It is perceived to have been started by either an exploding electrical pylon or by arsonists. Significant parts of the Parnitha National Park were destroyed. In total, the fire burnt 15,723 acres (63.6 km2) of the core of the national forest, in few days. This is one of the worst recorded wildfires in Attica since the Penteli fire of July 1995. The magnitude of the devastation was unforeseen. Environmental studies in Greece report that the Athenian microclimate will significantly change to warmer, during the summer, and flooding is now a very probable danger for the northern suburbs of the city. Mount Parnitha was considered the lungs of Athens. Following its considerable burning, both the city and local flora and fauna are expected to feel the consequences. Other affected areas included : Pelion, Agia and Melivoia.
July 2007 11 July 2007 A fire sparked, at a garbage dump, near at Skiathos and spread across the island. Residents and tourists were forced to evacuate to nearby Troulos and returned after the fire was put out. More than 100 fires were reported by July 15, 2007, in such locations as Keratea outside of Athens, Peloponnese, and on the Aegean islands of Andros, Evia, Lesbos, and Samos, as well as Crete and the Ionian island of Kefalonia. 20 July 2007 In Peloponnese, a fire which started from the mountains over the town of Aigio expanded rapidly towards Diakopto and Akrata, destroyed a large area of forests and cultivated land. In the same fire many villages were totally or partiallly burned, resulting in the loss of 230 houses, 10 churches; three people lost their lives. A 26-year old farmer and a 77-year old woman were arrested on suspicion of arson concerning the fires in Aigio and Diakopto. The farmer confessed and is currently held in prison
August 17, 2007 Fires started to burn on the outskirts of Athens. The fire started from Mt. Penteli, burning down towards the suburbs. More than sixty fire engines, nineteen planes and helicopters, and hundreds of firefighters, as well as locals attempted to hold back the fire. Melisia, Vrilisia, and Penteli city were affected. The fire was put out, once winds calmed down. On August 24, 2007, fires broke out in Peloponnese, Attica and Euboea. In Peloponnese, the fire burnt many villages and accounted for 60 deaths. Six people were reported to have been killed in the town of Areopoli.In Zacharo, one of the worst hit areas, at least 30 people were found dead by firefighters while searching burning cars and homes. Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis declared a state of emergency for the whole country and requested help from fellow members of the European Union. Multiple countries responded to the call. 1,000 military personnel involved in the fire fighting. Fires continued…
Fire in OLympia... August 26 2007 Olympia, site of the ancient Olympics and World Heritage Site, was evacuated. Fears were expressed for the survival of the ruins of ancient Olympia lying near the raging fire. The famous statue of Hermes of Praxitelis and nearby antiquities were spared from the fire, but the yard of the museum, where the statue is housed was scorched. According to the official statement no serious damage was caused to the antiquities.
Kronos Hilltop The fire burnt all the trees on the hilltop above, and an area of open space adjacent to the Olympic Academy. The fire did not damage the archaeological museum, nor the several ancient structures in the area.
Olympia “ The wider archaeological space of Olympia remains intact," Diclared the former minister of culture. Despite the Minister's claims, it has been established, that the afflicted damage is of greater importance and scale; the sacred Hill of Kronos was totally burnt during the blaze. The hill was left blackened, but soon reforested. New Culture Minister stated that 3,200 bushes and saplings planted on the Hill of Kronos, and the area to its previous appearance.
The Olympic games The games were held every four years, beginning on the second or third full moon after the summer solstice— so, sometime in late July or August. Originally, they lasted only one day and consisted of a single event, a footrace known as the stadion, but by 472 BC the competitions had been considerably expanded and the festival had been extended to five days. From the time of the seventh Olympiad (748 BC) onwards the prize was a kotinos, a garland of wild olive, from a sacred tree which grew on the site.
1200 years contineuity… The branch was cut by a boy whose parents were still both living— evidently a fertility rite of some antiquity. The games were staged without interruption for almost twelve hundred years until they were abolished, along with all of the other pagan cults, by the emperor Theodosius in 393 BC.
On September 1st of September The fires continued to burn into early September. On September 1, 2007, firefighters were still suppressing a strong blaze in Peloponnese. Three blazes remained, with the fires destructive path continuing in Arcadia and Mt. Parnon in Laconia. Then, on September 3, 2007 a lightning strike started a new fire on Mt. Vermion, which was soon brought under control by firefighters. On September 5 the death toll reached 67, and on September 21 reached 68.
Meteorological disasters Blizzards /Cyclonic storms/Droughts Hailstorms/Tornadoes
BLIZZARD • A blizzard is a severe snowstorm, characterized by strong winds. • By definition, the difference between blizzard and a snowstorm is the strength of the wind. • To be a blizzard, a snow storm must have winds in excess of 56 km/h (35 mph) with blowing • or drifting snow which reduces visibility to 400 meters or less and must last for a certain period of time — typically three hours or more.
Iran Blizzards • Ground blizzards require high winds to stir up already fallen snow. • Blizzards can paralyze regions for days at a time, particularly where snowfall is unusual or rare. • The 1972 Iran blizzard, which caused approximately 4000 deaths, was the deadliest in recorded history. • A week-long period of low temperatures and winter storms, lasting from February 3 to February 9, 1972, dumped more than ten feet (three metres) of snow across rural areas in northwestern, central and southern Iran.
Anthropogenic environmental disasters • Anthropogenic environmental disasters • 1. Bhopal: the Union Carbide gas leak2. Chernobyl: Russian nuclear power plant explosion3. Seveso: Italian dioxin crisis4. The 1952 London smog disaster5. Major oil spills of the 20th and 21st century6. The Love Canal chemical waste dump7. The Baia Mare cyanide spill8. The European BSE crisis9. Spanish waste water spill10. The Three Mile Island near nuclear disaster