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Engagement vs. Disaffection: PowerPoint Presentation
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Engagement vs. Disaffection:

Engagement vs. Disaffection:

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Engagement vs. Disaffection:

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  1. Engagement vs. Disaffection: Central Constructs in the Dynamics of Motivational Development C. Furrer, E. Skinner, G. Marchand, & T. Kindermann Portland State University Portland, OR SRA Biennial Meeting San Francisco, CA March 26, 2006 Contact: furrer@npcresearch.com 503.243.2436 x110

  2. Two Ideas • The opposite of engagement is more than just the absence of engagement, a concept known as disaffection. • Engagement is part of a larger motivational dynamic that contributes to child and adolescent development.

  3. ENGAGEMENT Emotional Engagement Behavioral Engagement Four Components of Classroom Engagement EMOTION BEHAVIOR • initiation • effort • exertion • working hard • persistence • attention • concentration • active participation • careful listening • enthusiasm • enjoyment • interest • happiness • involved • feeling good

  4. Four Components of Classroom Engagement EMOTION BEHAVIOR Emotional Disaffection Behavioral Disaffection DISAFFECTION • passivity • lack of effort • apathy • going through the motions • inattention • unprepared • mind wandering • boredom • anxiety • worry • frustration • anger • sadness

  5. ENGAGEMENT Emotional Engagement Behavioral Engagement BEHAVIOR EMOTION Emotional Disaffection Behavioral Disaffection DISAFFECTION Four Components of Classroom Engagement

  6. Emotional Engagement Behavioral Engagement Emotion Engagement Behavior Disaffection Emotional Disaffection Behavioral Disaffection Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models 2-Factor Models 4-Factor Model

  7. Keep working Keep trying Act like Relaxed Bored Behavioral Engagement .50 Don’t try Discuss Interested Nervous Emotional Disaffection Emotional Engagement Behavioral Disaffection Just enough Participate Terrible Happy Stop trying Try harder Worried Involved -.66 -.60 Give up Mad Good .61 Engagement vs. Disaffection 4th Graders (n=329) 4 vs. engage/disaffect: Χ2 diff (5)= 186.01, p < .001 4 vs. emotion/behavior: Χ2 diff (5)=148.08, p < .001

  8. Keep working Act like Keep trying Bored Relaxed Behavioral Engagement .65 Don’t try Discuss Nervous Interested Emotional Engagement Emotional Disaffection Behavioral Disaffection Just enough Participate Happy Terrible Stop trying Try harder Involved Worried -.68 -.67 Give up Mad Good .76 Engagement vs. Disaffection6th Graders (n=336) 4 vs. engage/disaffect: Χ2 diff (5)= 159.05, p < .001 4 vs. emotion/behavior: Χ2 diff (5)= 198.40, p < .001

  9. Act like Work hard Relaxed Bored .87 No attention Listen Interested Nervous Emotional Disaffection Emotional Engagement Behavioral Engagement Behavioral Disaffection Discuss Mind wanders Terrible Happy Participate Fall asleep Worried Involved -.67 -.80 Try Just enough Mad Good .75 Engagement vs. Disaffection9th Graders (n=443) 4 vs. engage/disaffect: Χ2 diff (5)= 178.38, p < .001 4 vs. emotion/behavior: Χ2 diff (5)= 276.07, p < .001

  10. Added Value of Disaffection Beyond Engagement

  11. Added Value of Four Components

  12. Self-System Model of Motivational Development CONTEXT SELF ACTION OUTCOMES Social Warmth Structure Autonomy Support Neglect Chaos Coercion Classroom Engagement & Disaffection Cognitive Relatedness Competence Autonomy Personality

  13. CONTEXT SELF ACTION OUTCOMES Self-systems Parents, Teachers, Self-perceptions Peers, School, Appraisals Engagement Neighborhood, Social Cognitions vs. Community Disaffection (in alphabetical order) (in alphabetical order) Attunement Ability beliefs Authentic instruction Attributions Autonomy support Attributional style Caring Autonomy Challenging tasks Competence Selection Chaos Conception of ability of Choice Control beliefs Contexts, Activities, Clarity of purpose Efficacy Tasks Clear high expectations Expectancies Clear prompt feedback Goals Connection to real world Goal orientations Coercion Perceptions of ability Adaptive Fairness Perceptions of Flexible use of time competence Coping Interesting fun activities Perceptions of Personal support task difficulty and Rejection Relatedness Action-regulation Relevance Task value Respect Values Maladaptive Structure and so on... Warmth and so on..... General Model Social Cognitive Personality

  14. Conclusions & Implications • Engagement is a multidimensional construct • There is added value in conceptualizing and measuring disaffection (the “opposite” of engagement) • In the context of a larger motivational model, engagement is the “engine” of development • Engagement is shaped by social and personal attributes, and is a proximal predictor of longer-term outcomes