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Class 10 Grammar
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Class 10 Grammar

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  1. Class 10 Grammar Fall 2005

  2. What you will need to know for the quiz: Clauses Phrases Irregular Verbs: to lie vs. to lay Need to review? • Four kinds of sentences • Four kinds of complements

  3. Home Review Kinds of Sentences Complements

  4. Home Four Kinds of Sentences 1. Simple Sentence 2. Compound Sentence 3. Complex Sentence 4. Compound-Complex Sentence Click here for sentences tree.

  5. Home 1. Simple Sentence Definition:a sentence that contains a main (or independent) clause—a subject and verb (or predicate) Example: Kate ran to the restaurant. Back to kinds of sentences.

  6. Home 2. Compound Sentence Definition:a sentence that contains two or more main (or independent) clauses and no subordinate (or dependent) clauses Example: Kate ran to the restaurant, and Caleb walked. Back to kinds of sentences.

  7. Home 3. Complex Sentence Definition:a sentence that contains one main (or independent) clause and at least one subordinate (or dependent) clause Example: Crying out loud, Kate ran to the restaurant. Back to kinds of sentences.

  8. Home 4. Compound-Complex Sentence Definition:a sentence that contains at least two main (or independent) clauses and one or more subordinate (or dependent) clauses Example: Crying out loud, Kate ran to the restaurant, and Caleb walked. Back to kinds of sentences.

  9. Home Complements Definition: a word or words used to complete the sense of a verb. Click here for four types. Click here for complements tree.

  10. Four Types of Complements 1. Predicate noun (subject complement): Rhoda became a star. 2. Predicate adjective: Betty was courageous. 3. Direct Object: Janet loves Jill. 4. Indirect Object: Give me the hammer, please. Question for review: Which are linking verbs? Back to definition of complements.

  11. Home. Sentences one and two contain linking verbs: Rhoda became a star. Betty was courageous. Back to kinds of complements.

  12. Home Clauses MAIN SUBORDINATE Click here for clauses tree.

  13. Home Definition: All sentences include a main clause (or independent clause)— that is, a subject and a verb. Main Clause Example: The dog jumped over the plate. Back to clauses.

  14. Home Subordinate Clauses Adjective Adverb Noun

  15. Home Definition:a subordinate (or dependent) clause that functions as adjective (tells more about the noun) Adjective Clause Example: Hilda, who hated all things fuzzy, hugged a little bunny. Back to kinds of subordinate clauses.

  16. Home Definition:a subordinate (or dependent) clause that functions as adverb (tells the when, why, how, where, under what condition) Adverb Clause Example: Before we go, I must put on my shoes. Back to kinds of subordinate clauses.

  17. Home Definition:a subordinate (or dependent) clause that functions as noun (as subject, direct object, indirect object, subject complement,object of preposition, or appositive) Noun Clause Click here for kinds of noun clauses. Back to kinds of subordinate clauses.

  18. as subject as direct object Kinds of Noun Clauses as predicate noun (or subject complement) as indirect object As object of preposition as appositive Back to definition of noun clause.

  19. Noun Clause: As Subject That it snowed surprised me. Back to kinds of noun clauses.

  20. Noun Clause: As Predicate Noun (or Subject Complement) The question was how to cross the bridge. Back to kinds of noun clauses.

  21. Noun Clause: As Object of Preposition You give the drum to whoever wants it. Back to kinds of noun clauses.

  22. Noun Clause: As Direct Object Chapin girls know that reading is fun. Back to kinds of noun clauses.

  23. Noun Clause: As Indirect Object Sally told whoever was nearby her story about the fish. Back to kinds of noun clauses.

  24. Noun Clause: As Appositive My teacher’s wish that I become a lifelong lover of literature could happen. Back to kinds of noun clauses.

  25. Home Phrases PREPOSITIONAL VERBAL Click here for phrases tree.

  26. Home Infinitive Phrases: Verbals Participial Gerund Back to kinds of phrases.

  27. Home Definition:a group of wordsconsisting of an infinitive and all the words related to it (an infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb). An infinitive usually begins with “to.” Infinitive Phrase Click here for kinds of infinitive phrases. Question for review: What is the infinitive alone? Back to kinds of verbals.

  28. Home to speak (the infinitive) Back to infinitive phrase.

  29. as subject as direct object Kinds of Infinitive Phrases as predicate noun (or subject complement) as appositive Back to definition of infinitive phrase.

  30. Infinitive Phrase: As Subject To snow hard is a wonder. Back to kinds of infinitive phrases.

  31. Infinitive Phrase: As Predicate Noun (or Subject Complement) The trick was to carry the egg slowly. Back to kinds of infinitive phrases.

  32. Infinitive Phrase: As Direct Object Chapin girls like to study hard. Back to kinds of infinitive phrases.

  33. Infinitive Phrase: As Appositive My teacher’s wish to climb Bear Mountain could happen. Back to kinds of infinitive phrases.

  34. Home Definition:a group of words consisting of a preposition, a noun or pronoun that serves as the object of the prep., and any modifiers of that object (they can function as adjective or adverb in a sentence) Prepositional Phrase Example:Brenda the brave, in blue jeans (adj.), screeched with laughter (adv.). Question for review: Where is the appositive? Back to kinds of phrases.

  35. Home On the ferris wheel Brenda the brave screeched with laughter. (the appositive) Back to prepositional phrases.

  36. Home Definition: a group of wordsconsisting of a participle and words related to it (a participle is a verb form that is used as an adjective—present ends in -ing; past ends in -ed or -en) Participial Phrase Click here for examples. Back to kinds of verbals.

  37. Home Participial Phrase: Examples (present and past) Tapping my foot, I looked out the window with longing. Filled with anger, the woman stormed into the building. Question #1 for review: What are the participles alone? Question #2 to test your knowledge of gerunds vs. participles. Back to definition of participial phrase.

  38. Home. tapping (present participle) filled (past participle) Back to participial phrase examples.

  39. Home Definition:a group of words consisting of a gerund and words related to it (a gerund is a verb form that ends in -ing—not to be confused with present participles!—and functions as a noun) Gerund Phrase Click here for kinds of gerund phrases. Back to kinds of verbals.

  40. Which is the gerund?Which is the participle? Walking on my tiptoesis fun. Walking down the street that windy day, I wished I took the bus. Click here for answer. Back to partipial phrase examples.

  41. Participle:Walking down the street that windy day, I wished I took the bus.Gerund:Walking on my tiptoesis fun. Back to examples of participial phrases.

  42. as subject as direct object Kinds of Gerund Phrases as predicate noun (or subject complement) as indirect object as object of preposition as appositive Back to definition of gerund.

  43. Gerund Phrase: As Subject Running in water is good for your legs. Back to kinds of gerund phrases.

  44. Gerund Phrase: As Predicate Noun (or Subject Complement) Her hope was getting a good seat. Back to kinds gerund phrases.

  45. Gerund Phrase: As Object of Preposition You’ll need shoes forwalking through the mud. Back to kinds of gerund phrases.

  46. Gerund Phrase: As Direct Object I love playing the piano. Back to kinds of gerund phrases.

  47. Gerund Phrase: As Indirect Object She gave playing the piano a chance. Back to kinds of gerund phrases.

  48. Gerund Phrase: As Appositive Mary’s role, playing Nora in A Doll House, was a great opportunity for her. Back to kinds of gerund phrases.

  49. Home To Lay: to put, place • Present: I lay, you lay, she lays, etc. • Past: I laid, you laid, etc. • Present perfect: I have laid, you have laid, etc. • Past progressive: I was laying, you were laying, etc. To Lie

  50. Home To Lie: to recline • Present: I lie, you lie, she lies, etc. • Past: I lay, you lay, etc. • Present perfect: I have lain, you have lain, etc. • Past progressive: I was lying, you were lying, etc. Click here to quiz yourself. Back to “to lay.”