WELCOME • Please have a seat and take a look at your packets. • We’ll get started soon. Thank you for being here.
Today’s Agenda • ABC • Reinforcement vs. Punishment • Data Collection • Functions of behavior • Interventions
Today’s purpose If you check the yes box on the IEP that says, “Does the student exhibit behaviors that impede his/her learning or that of others?” You MUST write a Positive Behavior Support Plan
Antecedent “any behavior that occurs immediately before a behavior” Examples: • Task demands without an end in sight. • Tasks assigned at the frustration level • Excessive talk or verbal directions
Behavior “an observable and measurable act of an individual” If you can’t directly observe it in some fashion, it is not behavior (dead man’s test) Two attributes of behavior: Form – the way a behavior looks, what we observe, a precise, specific description of the behavior. Function – the purpose that the behavior serves: • to get something • to avoid/delay/escape something
Consequence “Any event that follow a behavior and influences the future rate of the behavior” • Reinforcement – a consequence that results in increasing or maintaining the future rate of the behavior it follows 2. Punishment – a consequence that results in decreasing the future rate of the behavior it follows
Example • A child wants candy at the grocery store check out. Mom says, “no you can’t have candy.” Child cries and screams. Mom buys the candy. Child stops crying.
The Three Term Contingency Antecedent – Behavior – Consequence A B C
Behavioral Explanation Antecedent Behavior Consequence Mom says “No candy” (antecedent) Child screams and cries (behavior) Mom buys the candy (consequence)
Consequences • Consequences effect the future probability of the behavior • Depending on how things change as a result of the behavior, the behavior may increase or decrease in the future
So What Do You Think Happens the Next Time? Child wants candy in the grocery store Child screams and cries until he gets it! YES! But why?
Consequences • Things could get better • Things could stay the same • Things could get worse
Two types of Consequences • Reinforcement • Punishment
Reinforcement • Positive reinforcement: Something is added or gained that increases the probability of the behavior occurring again. • Negative reinforcement: Something is taken away or lost that increasesthe probability of the behavior occurring again.
Examples • Positive Reinforcement - Getting good things such as attention, toys, food, even reprimands. • Negative Reinforcement – getting rid of bad things (aversives) such as pain, sensory, task demand.
Reinforcement • Remember, reinforcement increases behavior!! • If you see the term ‘reinforcement’, the behavior is likely to repeat itself!
Punishment • Positive punishment: Something is added or gained that decreases the probability of the behavior occurring again. • Negative punishment: Something is taken away or lost that decreasesthe probability of the behavior occurring again.
Examples • Positive punishment – adding bad things such as a detention. • Negative punishment – getting rid of something desired such as removing behavior points, or a driver’s license.
Punishment • Remember, punishment decreases increases behavior!! • If you see the term ‘punishment’, the behavior is NOT likely to repeat itself!
Reinforcement and Punishment Intention vs. Actuality We only know if a consequence is a reinforcement or punishment by its effect on behavior NOT by our intent!!!! look at the frequency of the behavior
Data Collection • To determine the function you HAVE to collect data. • Research indicates that data should be collected for 10 days to be valid. • Data is observable and measurable, it is not opinion.
Activity • Sparky’s data collection
After Data collection • Positive Behavior Support Plan • Assessment • Specially Designed instruction
Assessment on the PBSP • Sparky assessment – What are his ABC’s?
Specially Designed Instruction • These are the interventions we are going to implement based on the data and function of the behavior. • Remember there are two functions: To get and to escape.
To Get: attention, preferred item or activity. Remove attention for behaviors maintained by SMPR. Employ the use of extinction (removal of all reinforcement for a behavior that has been previously reinforced). Teach replacement behaviors! Behavior strategies
To escape task demand, person, or environment Do not remove demands! Keep original demand in place and prompt child through to task completion as needed. Once you give a demand, you have to follow through! Make sure demands are not above the child’s skill level. This could be a big part of the problem! Use previously mastered skills to build behavior momentum and reinforce compliance with tasks! Behavior strategies
Escape con’t 3. Pair learning (teachers, learning materials, work areas) with lots of reinforcement! Increase the reinforcing value of learning! 4. Teach replacement behaviors (such as asking for a break, if a break is appropriate).Follow steps 1-3 FIRST! Behavior strategies
Self Stimulating Behaviors Use behaviors maintained by self-stimulating behaviors as reinforcers for work. For example, if a child completes a task upon adult request, the adult may allow the child to line up action figures for one minute. Make sure the duration and intensity of reinforcement matches the level of the demand! Teach the child to enjoy social interactions with others! Ham it up! Don’t be afraid to be silly! Behavior strategies
Self Stimulating (cont’d) 3.Teach replacement behavior (teach child to line Dominoes or build a train track instead of lining up action figures; teach child to make appropriate statements under instructional control about favorite movies or T.V. shows; teach child to use a Sit’N’Spin or Dizzy Disk instead of spinning on foot). Behavior strategies
Self injury Block self-injury without providing eye contact or verbal attention to behavior. Increase the reinforcing value of being with others (pair adults and peers with lots of reinforcement). Behavior Strategies
Self injury (con’t) 3. Teach replacement behaviors such as asking for a break, asking to play alone for a minute, picking one friend to play with vs. being overwhelmed with an entire group of peers (and then fading in additional peers as tolerance to one peer builds), etc. Behavior strategies