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Lesson Three

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  1. Lesson Three Pub Talk and the King's English

  2. Aims • To learn the methods in developing an expository writing,esp. the use of examples • To know how to make good conversation • To trace the history of the King’s English • To analyse the features of spoken English • To appreciate the language features

  3. Teaching Contents • 1. Exposition • 2. History of Britain • 2. Detailed study of the text • 3. Organizational pattern • 4. Language features • 5. The characteristics of spoken English

  4. Time allocation 1. Exposition and history (15 min.) 2. Detailed study of the text (105 min.) 3. Structure analysis (15 min.) 4. Language appreciation (15 min.) 5. The characteristics of spoken English (30 min)

  5. Writing style • a piece of exposition • What is King's English? • What is pub talk?

  6. Writing style • The title of this piece is not very aptly chosen. • It misleads the readers into thinking that the writer is going to demonstrate some intrinsic or linguistic relationship between pub talk and the king's English

  7. Writing style • Whereas the writer, in reality, is just discoursing on what makes good conversation. • He feels that bar conversation in the pub has a charm of its own.

  8. Writing style • The writer illustrates his point by describing the charming conversation he had with some people one evening in a pub on the topic “the King's English". • The thesis --- in the opening sentence of Para 1.

  9. Writing style • Conversation is the most sociable of all human activities. • The last sentence of the last par. winds up the theme by pointing out what is the bane (祸害)of good conversation ....... "talking sense“

  10. Writing style • The real thesis --- in the 3rd para. “Bar conversation has a charm of its own”. • A better title would be: • " The Art of Good Conversation“ • "The Charms of Conversation"

  11. The History of Britain • 1.The native people in Britain Celts • --- Celt (language) • 2. Roman Conquest 43 AD, ruled for 400 years • Latin (language)

  12. The History of Britain • 3. In 449 Angles, Saxon, and Jutes from Northwest of Germany , conquered the most part of England • English --- old English

  13. The History of Britain • 4. 9th century, Scandinavian conquest Danish (language) • 5. 11th century Norman Conquest for 400 years French (language) • 6. British people conquered the conquest again. English won its recognition. • *http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/o_neo_bronze.shtml *

  14. Detailed study of the text • pub talk • --- conversation held in the public house • The King's English • --- standard English

  15. Detailed study of the text • Conversation is the .....: • Conversation helps to promote an agreeable pleasant and informal relationship among people.

  16. sociable • ---- friendly; agreeable • The smiths are a sociable family. • We spent a sociable evening drinking the other day. • A sociable person is one who is friendly.

  17. And it is an activity only of human… • -- And conversation is an activity which is found only among human beings. • Animals and birds are not capable of conversation.

  18. intricate --- complicated • The intricate computer requires a skilled operator. • an intricate argument / plot • design / pattern

  19. indulge in • --- enjoy; satisfy 容许自己享受; 尽情 • allow oneself to have or enjoy • He indulged heavily in conversation and drink.

  20. indulge in • He occasionally indulges in the luxury of a good cigar. • We indulge in an expensive supper after the concert. • Nazi madmen indulged in the torture of their victims before they killed them.

  21. Par. 2 • How to make good conversation?

  22. What makes good conversation? • 1. Anything can start a conversation. It does not need a special topic to start a conversation. And once started, no one knows how or where it will end.

  23. What makes good conversation? • 2. What spoils the conversation is people who think they have a lot of important things to say. He who would have anything important to say spoils the conversation. • 3. Conversation is not for making a point.

  24. What makes good conversation? • 4. There is no winning in conversation. One does not try to prove himself right and others wrong. We may argue but we needn't try to convince others that they are wrong and we are right.

  25. make a point • --- prove effectively truth of one‘s statement by argument or in some other way.立论; 证明观点 • This is the first point I want to make. • In this case he made a point. • 在这一点上,他发表了自己的观点。

  26. in a flash --- in a second • In a flash he realized that they were presents from his patients. • Everything happened in a flash. • a flash in a pan

  27. They are ready to let it go. • --- They are ready to give up the opportunity to tell one of their best anecdotes (because the conversation has moved onto other subjects)

  28. metaphor • meander • leap ---- river 1. flow slowly turning here and there 2. jump over

  29. metaphor • Sparkle • glow ---- fire • 1. small flashes • 2. bright light

  30. mixed metaphor • meander/ sparkle --- smooth / peaceful • leap / glow ---- exciting / heated • The writer in the same sentence compares conversation to river and fire as well.

  31. Para 3 • the real thesis --- • Bar conversation has a charm of its own

  32. Why does the writer like bar conversation so much? 1. The writer is only a frequenter of pubs. 2. Bar goers are not intimate friends. • Bar/church, the place for people to make friends. Bar plays an important role in social activities in the western world.

  33. on the rocks --- • infml cliché 1. wrecked or ruined • Mr Jones' business was on the rocks. = His business was losing money and almost ruined.

  34. on the rocks • 2.with ice only • Sally ordered an orange juice on the rocks. = Sally ordered an orange juice with ice cubes. • Marriage is compared to a ship wrecked on the rocks.

  35. Ancient superstition: 1. get out of bed on the wrong side get up on the wrong side of the bed

  36. Ancient superstition Getting out of bed on the "wrong side" will bring you "bad" luck. The wrong side is usually the "left" side. When one get out of bed on the "wrong" side, it usually means you're in the "grumpy" or "bad" mood. • Go back to bed and get up on the right side.

  37. Ancient superstition 2. “Step on a spider... it is sure to rain” • This superstition is told to all children, because no one wants it to rain. Spiders generally live a long and healthy life. 3. The number 13 has often been thought to be a bad omen. People should never invite "13 guests to dinner. It is believed that one will die before the year is out .

  38. Ancient superstition 4. " Friday the 13th " is day to stay at home and do nothing. It is doubly unlucky, when the 13th of the month falls on a Friday. "Bad" things will happen. Many people refrain from starting activities on the "13th" to make sure no evil will happen to them.

  39. up-bringing --- the training and education received while growing up • His upbringing explains a lot about his attitude towards women.

  40. of one's own -- belong strictly to oneself • She has a mind of her own. 她颇有主见。 • For reasons of his own, he refused to join the club. • 由于某些个人理由,他拒绝参加那个俱乐部。

  41. delve – • dig, research; investigate • delve into book 专研书本 • delve into the past 调查过去的情况 • If you delve into sth, you try to discover new information about it.

  42. two kinds of language: a) colloquial expression • on the rocks • get out of bed on the wrong side b) literary allusion 文学典故, 引喻 in reference to a person; event; story

  43. "Musketeers of Dumas“ • http://www.cadytech.com/dumas/biographie.php • The three Musketeers in Dumas' novel are very close friends. They supported each other with their fortune and their lives, yet they showed no curiosity in or tried to find out anything about each other's private life.

  44. Para.1-3 Questions: • How do you comment on the title? • What is the first topic the writer puts forward? • Do you think the writer sticks to this topic? • What makes a good conversation? • Why does the writer like bar conversation so much?

  45. Para. 4 • Specific example. It may be used as a transitional paragraph. In order to arouse the readers curiosity the writer didn't mention the topic until the next paragraph.

  46. desultory ---- aimless, half-hearted (fml) 散漫 • The word comes from the Latin "desultor" - leaper . Something that is desultory is done or happen in an unplanned and disorganized way, and without enthusiasm.

  47. desultory • There were some desultory attempts to defend him. • He began to look desultorily for another apartment. • a ~ conversation 漫谈 • ~ research 漫无边际的研究 • a ~ walk 漫步

  48. commonplace -- ordinary, common • Disposable cigarette lighters are commonplace. Air travel has now become ~. • n. In earlier centuries the death of children was a commonplace.

  49. alchemy --- magic • the form of chemistry studied in the Middle Ages, which was especially concerned with trying to discover ways to change ordinary metals into gold. • a literary use, the power to do sth. so well that it seems mysterious and magical the alchemy of his performance

  50. affirmation --- a statement of your belief in and support for them • the denunciation of privilege and affirmation 指责特权 • affirmation of equality 赞同平等