Principles of Physical Fitness Chapter 2
Physical Activity and Exercise for Health and Fitness • Physical activity levels have declined • The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the following: • 62% participate in some leisure activity • 38% are physically inactive • Of those that exercise, only 12% exercise at least 5 times per week at an intense level • 80% of Americans with graduate degrees exercise compared to only 40% of high school dropouts
Why aren’t more Americans active? • Lack of priority • Lack of time • Lack of motivation • Lack of education
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY • “Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure.” • This includes chores and hobbies as well as structured exercises such as washing and waxing the car by hand, mowing the lawn, gardening, mopping the floors. EXERCISE ~ ”Is a subset of physical activity and is defined as planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movements done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness.” ~ This includes walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, jumping rope, stair climbing, to name a few.
2005 Guidelines for Americans • The U.S. Dept. of Health and Humans Services recommend the following: • 30 mins. of moderate intense physical activity beyond usual activity already peformed at work/home on most days of the week • Moderate physical activity consist of these types: • Brisk walking • Dancing • Swimming • Cycling • Yard work
Lifestyle Physical Activity • For health promotion: • ALL AMERICANS should expend about 150 calories—equivalent to 30 minutes of brisk walking (3-4 mph)—on most days, above the normal routine • For health promotion and weight management: • Engage in 60 or more daily minutes of activity to prevent unhealthy weight gain • Engage in 60-90 daily minutes of activity to sustain weight loss
Lifestyle Activity • Walking rather than taking the bus. • Parking far from the store entrance. • Taking the stairs instead of the elevator. • Getting up to change the channel vs using a remote control. • Gardening. • Walking the dog. • Washing the car. • Limit sedentary activity, such as sitting at the computer or on the couch!
Moderate Amounts of Physical Activity • But, what is moderate? How long do I have to exercise to burn about 150 calories?
BENEFITS • Healthy Appearance • Better posture and alignment • Fluid, easy movement • Stronger joints and firmer muscles • Lowered risk of low back pain • Decreased susceptibility to injury • Fewer aches and pains • More efficient circulatory and respiratory system • Improved blood cholesterol levels • Increased life expectancy • Decreased body fat and/or body weight • Controlled appetite • Better digestion • Stress Reduction • More restful sleep • Increased job productivity • More energy and vitality
PHYSICAL FITNESS • The ability of the body to adapt to the demands of physical effort. To perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without becoming overly tired. • To develop fitness, one must perform a sufficient amount of physical activity to stress the body and cause long-term physiological changes. FITNESS VS HEALTH BENEFITS ~ In order to become physically fit it is best to train every day. (ACSM) ~ However, smaller amounts (less frequent) can provide HEALTH benefits. ~ If you increase your level of fitness, the greater the health benefits!
Exercise to Develop Physical Fitness • Lifestyle physical activity improves health but may not improve fitness • A structured, formal exercise program improves physical fitness and provides even greater health improvements
Cardio-respiratory Endurance refers to the ability of the body to take in, deliver, and extract oxygen for physical work or to perform prolonged, large muscle dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity. Muscular Strength is the maximum force that a muscle can exert in a single contraction or with a single maximum effort. Muscular Endurance is the capacity to exert repetitive muscular force or the ability of the muscle to remain contracted or contract repeatedly for long periods of time. Flexibility refers to the range of motion in a specific joint or group of joints. Flexibility is related to muscle length. Body Composition is the proportion of lean mass (muscle, bone, and water) and fat tissue in the body. HEALTH-RELATEDCOMPONENTS OF FITNESS
Skill-RelatedComponents of Fitness • Speed • Power • Balance • Coordination • Agility • Reaction Time • These are more sport specific.
PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICAL TRAINING • Principle of Adaptation – “If a specific physiological capacity is taxed by a physical training stimulus within a certain range and on a regular basis, this physiological capacity usually expands.” The body improves when it is physically stressed at a higher level than it is currently use to. • Principle of Specificity – The body will adapt very specifically to the type and nature of training. Ie. If you want to run a marathon, you have to do long distance running. • Principle of Progressive Overload- As the body adapts to the demands of exercise by improving, the amount of exercise needs to also progressively increase in orderfor fitness to continue to improve. • Placing increasing amounts of stress on the body causes adaptations that improve fitness; progression is critical! • FITT principle for overload: • Frequency—How often • Intensity—How hard • Time—How long (duration) • Type—Mode of activity
Principles of Training Principle of Reversibility (Disuse)-When physical training is stopped or reduced, the body will adjust to the new and diminished level. When a person stops exercising, up to 50% of fitness improvements are lost within 2 months.
Designing Your Own Exercise Program • Medical clearance • Fitness assessment • Setting goals • Specific • Measurable • Attainable • Realistic • Time frame specific
Designing Your Own Exercise Program • Choosing activities for a balanced program • Include activities to develop health-related components of physical fitness
Guidelines for Training • Train the way you want your body to change • Train regularly • Start slowly, and get in shape gradually; do not overtrain • Warm up before exercise • Cool down after exercise • Exercise safely
Guidelines for Training • Listen to your body, and get adequate rest • Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts • Try training with a partner • Vary your activities • Train your mind • Fuel your activity appropriately
Guidelines for Training • Have fun • Track your progress • Keep your exercise program in perspective
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Tip of the Day • Start today to increase your physical activity. Replace 30 minutes of inactivity with an activity that keeps the body moving!