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Physical Fitness

Physical Fitness

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Physical Fitness

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  1. Physical Fitness Benefits Aerobic Fitness Strength Stretching Nutrition Injury Prevention & Treatment Next

  2. Improved cardio fitness • Reduced cancer risk • Improved bone mass • Improved weight control • Prevention of diabetes • Improved immunity • Improved mental health and stress • Longer life span Benefits of Regular Activity Previous Next Menu

  3. Benefits Previous Next Menu

  4. Aerobic exercise is any type of exercise that increases heart rate. • Aerobic capacity is the functional status of the cardiorespiratory system, measured as the maximum volume of oxygen consumed by the muscles during exercise (VO2max). • Graded exercise test is a test of aerobic capacity done by gradually increasing the pace on a treadmill or bike. Aerobic Fitness Previous Next Menu

  5. Frequency: Vigorous exercise should be performed at least three times per week. • Intensity: Use your target heart rate or the rating of perceived exertion scale. • Target heart rate, lower = (220 – age)  0.50 • Target heart rate, upper = (220 – age)  0.70 • Duration: vigorous activities for 20 minutes; moderate for 30 minutes Aerobic Fitness Previous Next Menu

  6. 220 – age = maximum heart rate (MHR) • Moderate intensity is a heart rate from 50 to 70 percent of MHR. • MHR  0.50 = lower limit HR • MHR  0.70 = upper limit HR • Example of Moderate: • 220 – 20 = 200 • 200  0.50 = 100 LHR • 200  0.70 = 140 UHR • Vigorous intensity is a heart rate from 70 to 85 percent of MHR. Aerobic Fitness Previous Next Menu

  7. Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle is capable of exerting. • One repetition maximum (1 RM) is the maximum amount of weight you can move at one time. • Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle to exert force repeatedly without fatiguing. Strength Previous Next Menu

  8. Overload • Specificity • Variation • Reversibility Principles of Strength Development Previous Next Menu

  9. Body-weight resistance (calisthenics) • Fixed resistance • Variable resistance • Accommodating-resistance devices • Core strength training Methods of Providing Resistance Previous Next Menu

  10. Flexibility is a measure of the range of motion of a joint. • Static stretching • Slow, gradual stretching of muscles and tendons, and holding them at a point • Dynamic stretching • Under a trainer’s supervision, moving parts of your body in a gradual and controlled manner • Ballistic stretching is repeated bouncing motions, which carry a high risk of injury and are not recommended. Stretching Exercises Previous Next Menu

  11. Stretching Exercises to Improve Flexibility Previous Next Menu

  12. What to eat? • Carbohydrates: chief source of fuel • Protein: muscle repair and growth • Fats: additional fuel source for muscles • When to eat? • Allow 3 to 4 hours between eating a large meal and exercising. • Light snack may help before workout • Stay hydrated. Nutrition and Exercise Previous Next Menu

  13. Types of injuries from fitness-related activities • Overuse injuries are due to cumulative, continuous stresses on the tendons, bones, and ligaments during exercise. • Traumatic injuries are sudden and violent; typically from accidents during exercise or sport. Fitness-Related Injuries Previous Next Menu

  14. Plantar fasciitis: inflammation of the broad band of dense, inelastic tissue (fascia) that protects the nerves, blood vessels, and muscles of the foot from injury • Shin splints: pain and swelling along the middle of the shin in the soft tissues, not the bone • Runner’s knee: pain experienced when downward pressure is applied to the kneecap after the knee is straightened fully Common Overuse Injuries Previous Next Menu

  15. RICE • Rest • Ice • Compression • Elevation Treatment Previous Next Menu

  16. Three major types of heat stress • Heat cramps • Heat exhaustion • Heatstroke • Prevention • Drink plenty of fluids, especially a sports drink to prevent hyponatremia. Exercising in the Heat Previous Next Menu

  17. Hypothermia • Prevention • Watch weather conditions. • Take a friend with you. • Layer clothing. • Drink plenty of fluids. Exercising in the Cold Previous Next Menu

  18. Prevention of heat cramps • Be sure to properly warm up muscles before exercising. • Massage, stretching, putting pressure on muscle, and deep breathing are useful remedies. Cramps Previous Next Menu