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  2. COMMITMENT • Requires a lifelong commitmentof time and effort. • Exercise must become one of those things you dowithout question! • Unless you are convinced of the benefitsof fitness and the risks of unfitness, you will not succeed!

  3. PATIENCEEssential! • Don’t try to do too much too soon! • Don’t quit before you have a chance to experience the rewards of improved fitness! (could be noticed in 3 weeks)

  4. CHECK YOUR HEALTH • Consult your physician or doctor before beginning an exercise program!

  5. DEFINITION OF FITNESS: • A condition that helps us look, feel and do our best. • “The ability to perform daily tasks vigorously and alertly, with energy left over for enjoying leisure-time activities and meeting emergency demands.”


  7. 1. CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE • The ability to deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues, and to remove wastes, over sustained periods of time. • Examples: Long runs or swims, exercise lasting more than 15-20 minutes.

  8. 2. MUSCULAR STRENGTH • The ability of a muscle to exert a force for a brief period of time. • Various weight-lifting exercises.

  9. 3. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE • The ability of a muscle, or a group of muscles, to sustain repeated contractions or to continue applying force against a fixed object. Examples: • Push-ups test endurance of arm and shoulder muscles. • Sit ups test endurance of the abdominals or stomach.

  10. 4. FLEXIBILITY • Ability to move joints and use muscles through their full range of motion. • Example: The sit and reach test measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstrings. • Hold each stretch for at least 10-30 seconds and repeat up to ten times

  11. 5. BODY COMPOSITION • Makeup of the body in terms of lean muscle mass to body fat. • Lean Muscle Mass is muscle, bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and organs. • An optimal ratio of fat to lean mass is an indication of fitness. • Right types of exercise will help you decrease body fat and increase or maintain muscle mass.

  12. A WORKOUT SCHEDULE • How often, how long and how hard you exercise, and what kinds of exercises you do should be determined by what you are trying to accomplish. • Your goals, your present fitness level, age health, skills, interest and convenience are factors to consider. • Example: An Olympic athlete would follow a different program that a person whose goals are health or recreational needs.

  13. Where Do I Start My Fitness Program • Have medical clearance. • Access your current level of fitness. • Set goals. • Reward yourself.

  14. Accessing your current level: • Mile run or step test checks your level of cardiovascular fitness. • Sit-up test or pushup test determines muscular endurance. • Max out on the bench press or leg press to determine muscular strength. • Sit and Reach test determines your level of flexibility. • Calculate body mass index or percent body fat to determine body composition.

  15. FITNESS PLAN • Your exercise program should include something from each of the first four basic fitness components. • Each workout should begin with a warm-up and end with a cool-down. • Space your workout out throughout the week and avoid consecutive days of hard exercise.

  16. AVERAGE HEALTHY PERSON WORKOUT 1. WARM-UP • 5-10 minutes of exercises such as walking or slow jogging. • Low intensity movements that prepares the muscles for the work to come. • Raises body temperature. • Reduces risk of injury. • Stretch large muscles slowly and smoothly (Don’t bounce).

  17. 2. MUSCULAR STRENGTH • Aminimum of 2 20-minute sessions per week that include exercises for all the major muscle groups. • Lifting weights is the most effective way to increase strength.

  18. MUSCULARSTRENGTH (cont.) • Exercise slowly taking at least 2-4 seconds each time you lower the weight. • Rest = no rest to 30 secs. - 1-2 minutes between sets. • For strength and mass = Increase weight and decrease reps ( 3sets of 3-5 reps) • For tone and some strength increase = moderate weight and moderate to high reps (4 sets of 8-15 reps)

  19. Types of exercises for muscular strength • Isometric Exercise: Little or no movement of the body part (Pushing against wall with palms). • Isotonic Exercise: Combines muscle contraction with repeated movement (Lifting weights or push-ups). • Isokinetic Exercise: Resistance through an entire range of motion (Certain exercise equipment).

  20. 3. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE • At least 3 30-minute sessions each week. • Include exercises such as calisthenics, push-ups, sit-ups, pull ups, and weight training for all the muscle groups. • LEG LIFTS!

  21. 4. CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE • At least 3 20-minute bouts of continuous aerobic exercise per week. • Examples: Brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, rope jumping, rowing, cross-country skiing, racquetball, basketball. • AEROBIC: Activity with oxygen (example: jogging 20 continuous minutes burns fat/strengthens heart). • ANAEROBIC: Activity without oxygen (example: running 50 meter dash).


  23. HEART RATE • TARGET HEART RATE: The range your heart should beat while exercising. • MAXIMUM HEART RATE: The highest number you want your heart to beat. • RESTING HEART RATE: The number of times your heart beats while at rest. • PULSE RECOVERY RATE: The number of times your heart beats after exercise.

  24. HOW DO I CALCULATE MY HEART RATE? • Find pulse in carotid artery located in your neck. • Count pulse for 15 seconds. • Multiply that number by 4. • The number you get is your heart beating per minute.

  25. HOW DO I CALCULATE TARGET HEART RATE (upper range)? 220 220 • ___ your age - 14 = ___ maximum heart rate =206 • ___ your resting heart rate - 60 = ___ =146 X .70 x .70 = ___ =102 + ___ your resting heart rate + 60 = ___ upper end of your target heart rate =162

  26. Lower range target heart rate (cont.) 220 220 • ___ your age - 14 = ___ maximum heart rate =206 • ___ your resting heart rate - 60 = ___ =146 X .50 x .50 = ___ = 73 + ___ your resting heart rate + 60 = ___ upper end of your target heart rate =132

  27. 5. FLEXIBILITY • 10-12 minutes of daily stretching exercises. • Can be included in the warm-up and cool-down. Best to be done when muscles are warm, do not stretch a cold muscle

  28. 6. COOL-DOWN • A minimum of 5-10 minutes of SLOW walking, low level exercise, combined with stretching.

  29. F.I.T.T. PRINCIPLE FREQUENCY: how often you work out (3- 4 times per week). INTENSITY: how hard you work out at the the activity during a session (60-85% of your target HR). TIME: how much time you devote to a given session (Duration should be at least 60 minutes per day for 5-6 days per week). TYPE:Specificity, refers to the specific activity chosen to improve a component of fitness. An individual must do strength training to improve strength, stretching to improve flexibility, etc. 20-30 minutes).

  30. Key to selecting right kinds of exercises and maintaining each of the basic components of fitness are found in the following principles: 1. Specificity: Pick the right kind of activities to affect each component. *Strength training results in specific strength changes. A MATTER OF PRINCIPLE

  31. SPECIFICITY *Train for specific activity that interest you. *Example: Optimal swimming performance is best achieved when muscles involved in swimming are trained for the movements required.

  32. 2. OVERLOAD • To bring about improvement, work hard enough, at levels that are vigorous and long enough to overload your body above its resting level. • Sets or reps builds muscle. “over load principle”

  33. 3. REGULARITY • You can’t “hoard” physical fitness! • At least 3balanced workouts a week are necessary to maintain a desirable level of fitness.

  34. 4. PROGRESSION • Increase the intensity, frequency, and/or duration (time) of activity over periods of time in order to improve. • Increase or decrease number of sets or reps. • Every 30 - 60 days change your routine!

  35. CONTROLLING YOUR WEIGHT • KEY to weight control is keeping energy intake (food) and energy output (physical activity) in BALANCE! • When you consume as many calories that you need, your weight will stay the same. • If you take in more calories than your body needs, the excess will be stored as FAT! • If you expend more energy than you take in, you will burn excess fat!

  36. EXERCISE ROLE IS WEIGHT CONTROL • By increasing energy output, your body will call on stored fat for the extra fuel! • Research shows that not only does exercise increase metabolism during a workout, but it causes your metabolism to stay increased for a period of time after exercising allowing you to burn more calories.

  37. METABOLISM • The process by which your body gets energy from food.

  38. BASAL METABOLISM • Minimum amount of energy required to maintain the life processes in a body.

  39. SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE • A way of life that requires little movement or exercise. • Muscle weighs more than fat and exercise develops muscle. • The more muscle you have, the more calories (units of heat) you burn.

  40. WEIGHT LOSS • Combination of exercise and diet offers the most effective approach to weight control! • Body composition is the best indicator of your fitness/appearance. Do not go by body weight or the scales. • One pound of fat equals 3500 calories! (Average adult would have to walk 30 miles to burn 1 pound of fat!)

  41. WHEN TO EXERCISE • Exercise either 1 hour before eating or 2-3 hours after eating. • Do not exercise during extreme hot humid weather. • Do not exercise when temperature/wind chill is below 32 degrees. • Do not exercise when it is lightning.

  42. CLOTHING • Should be loose-fitting to permit freedom of movement. • Should make the wearer feel comfortable and self-assured. • Generally, wear lighter clothing that is visible or that would not bring heat in from the sun. • Never wear rubberized or plastic clothing.

  43. SHOES • STURDY • Should be properly fitting. • Should be RUNNING or shoes designed for that activity. • Training shoes with heavy, cushioned soles and arch supports are preferable to flimsy sneakers.

  44. CROSS TRAINING Combining various exercise routines to help work different body systems (shock the body).

  45. SELECTING THE RIGHT ACTIVITY • Where you live. • Your range of interest. • Your level of health. • Time and place. • Personal safety. • Comprehensive planning.

  46. President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (or the PCPFS) strives to make the health and fitness of all Americans a top national priority.Dates back to 1956, when President Eisenhower initiated the first national testing program. Ever since, the Council has included some of America's most distinguished citizens as members. They hail from all walks of life: athletes, civic leaders, educators, businesspeople, health experts. Together they serve as a shining example, inspiring millions to live more active lives.The mission of the PCPFS is to promote the benefits of fitness everywhere it can. From local communities all the way to the highest levels of government. That involves partnering with organizations across the country - including schools, boys and girls clubs, corporations, and more.

  47. Feel and look better. Have more energy. Lose weight. Suffer from less chronic pain. Relieve stress. Sleep better. Raise good Cholesterol. Reduce risk of heart disease. Reduce chances of developing osteoporosis. BENEFITS OF EXERCISE