Physical activity is something you do that involves movement and expends energy. • Exercise is a physical activity that is planned or structured. It is movements that are designed to make your body stronger. • Physical fitness is something you acquire. It is a measure of your body’s ability to perform physical activities and exercises.
Physical fitness is the ability to function effectively in physical work, training, and other activities and still have enough energy left over to handle any emergencies which may arise. • It is achievable by everyone, despite body type, family health history, and past habits
If you feel any unusual pain or discomfort during your physical activity session or if you answer “yes” to any questions listed in the Physical Readiness Questionnaire, contact your allied health professional prior to beginning an exercise program.
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q) • 1. Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you should only do physical activity recommended by a doctor? • 2. Do you feel pain in your chest when you do physical activity? • 3. In the past month, have you had chest pain when you were not doing physical activity? • 4. Do you lose your balance because of dizziness or do you ever lose consciousness?
5. Do you have a bone or joint problem that could be made worse by a change in your physical activity? • 6. Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs for your blood pressure or heart condition? • 7. Do you know any other reason that prevents you doing physical activity?
A physical activity programincludes 3 primary components: • 1- Aerobic (Cardiovascular): • Aerobic activities, such as running and swimming, intensive walking, bicycling, swimming, skiing, rowing, stair climbing, and jumping rope • help the heart, lungs and blood vessels become more effective at delivering to the muscles what they need to function - oxygen and glucose.
Aerobic exercise is the best type of activity for attaining and maintaining a low percentage of body fat. • As regard walking: should begin slowly with 12 minutes of walking at least four times a week and add two minutes each week to every workout until the duration reaches 45 to 60 minutes per workout. • You can increase the intensity by adding hills or stairs.
Many factors can negatively affect one's ability to perform well aerobically. These include the following: • • Age. • • Anemia. • • Carbon monoxide from tobacco smoke or pollution. • • High altitude (reduced oxygen pressure). • • Illness (heart disease). • • Obesity.
2-Muscular Strength and Endurance: • These activities include exercises such as pushups, curl-ups, or weight training. Muscular strength and endurance activities help your muscles become stronger, giving them both the raw strength and ability to work repeatedly without undue fatigue.
3- Flexibility: • Flexibility or stretching exercises are necessary to prevent injury to the muscles and joints, and to allow the muscles to work efficiently through a full range of motion.
Recommended Exercise Sequence: • (1) Warm-Up • (2) Stretching • (3) Physical Activity Session (Aerobic , Muscular Strength and Endurance Exercise, Sporting Event) • (4) Cool Down • (5) Stretching • the recommended exercise sequence to improve performance and to reduce risk of injury; this exercise sequence should be conducted between 3 to 6 days per week.
Warm-Up • to prepare the muscles and heart for the workout. • Participation in a 3 to 5 minute warm- up during the first portion of your exercise session will assist you in decreasing your chances of getting injured. • Examples of warm-up exercises include walking, slow jogging, or any non-vigorous, low intensity activity.
Stretching • Stretching exercises should be conducted after the warm-up and cool-down exercise sequence. • Stretching makes the muscles, ligaments, and tendons more flexible and elastic- like. Rather than tearing or breaking when under strain, a flexible muscle is more likely to stretch.
* Stretch to a point of mild tension • * Hold each stretch for 10 to 30 sec. • * Repeat each stretch 3 to 5 times
Cool-Down: • A cool-down consists of 3 to 5 minutes of light to moderate slow activity after vigorous exercise.
Physical activity provides: • Improved health • Improved physical fitness • Improved well-being • Maintenance of a healthy body weight
Improved health • Reduces your risk of becoming obese by helping you achieve and maintain a healthy weight. • Reduces your risk of heart disease, osteoporosis, certain cancers and diabetes. • Helps control blood pressure. • Improves blood cholesterol levels. • Helps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles and joints. • Improves your immunity to minor illnesses. • Boosts your energy level.
Physical Fitness Benefits • Builds your endurance. • Enhances your flexibility. • Reduces frequency and severity of injuries.
Schedule Time for Physical Activity • 30 minutes a day to reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes and some cancers. • 60 minutes to prevent weight gain in adulthood. • 60 to 90 minutes teamed with a low-calorie diet to lose weight and keep it off.
Measuring Heart Rate • Why? • To optimize health benefits • To assess individual’s EFFORT • Where? • Radial (below thumb) • Carotid (on neck)
Determining HR Zones • Max HR (MHR): 220-age • Resting HR (RHR): • Awaken & check before lifting head; repeat for 6 days and average • In school setting: lay down on floor for 10 mins then check • Target Heart Rate Zones (THRZ): • 60-70%MHR: fat burning • 70-80%MHR: improved CV endurance • 80-100%MHR: competitive training • Recovery Heart Rate: • How long it takes the heart to return to “normal” after PA • Usually one, three, five minute intervals