Physical Fitness “The ability to function effectively in physical work, training and other activities and still have enough energy left over to handle any emergencies which may arise.” “The ability of the body to meet present and future physical demands.”
Advantages of Good Health • Feel good about yourself • Increased confidence • Comfortable with other people • Can control tension and anxiety • More likely to have a positive outlook
Healthy Lifestyle • Live longer • Reduce risk of heart disease • Prevent hypertension • Improve circulation • Strengthen lungs • Ward off infection
Personal Responsibility • Fitness is critical to mission success • Manage both physical and mental stress in high risk situations • Be able to assist others
Physical Challenges • Extended periods of being tired • Hunger • Adverse weather • Effects of fear, emotional stress • Austere living conditions • Wounds and injuries
Professional Bearing • Fosters respect for self and others • Increases confidence • Promotes dignity and respect for the profession
Agenda • Components of Fitness • Principles of Exercise • FITT Factors • Phases of Fitness Conditioning
Components of Fitness • Cardiorespiratory Endurance (CRE) • Muscular Strength (MS) • Muscular Endurance (ME) • Flexibility (FLEX) • Body Composition (BC)
Cardiorespiratory Endurance (CRE) The efficiency with which the body delivers oxygen and nutrients needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from the cells.
Muscular Strength (MS) The greatest amount of force that a muscle or muscle groups can exert in a single effort.
Muscular Endurance (ME) The ability of a muscle or muscle group to perform repeated movements with a sub-maximal force for extended periods of time.
Flexibility (FLEX) The ability to move joints or any group of joints through an entire, normal range of motion.
Body Composition(BC) The amount of body fat the soldier has in comparison to his/her total body mass.
Principles of Exercise • P rogression • R egularity • O verload • V ariety • R ecovery • B alance • S pecificity
Progression - Intensity (how hard) and/or duration (how long) of exercise must gradually increase to improve level of fitness Regularity - Exercise often (at least three times a week)
Overload - must exceed the normal demands placed on the body in order to bring about the desired training effect Variety - reduces boredom and increases motivation and progress; work different parts of the body
Recovery - hard training day should be followed by an easier training day or a rest day for that component or muscle group to help permit recovery Balance - should include activities that address all fitness components; overemphasizing any one of them may hurt the others
Specificity - training must be geared towards specific goals (i.e. run more to improve running)
PROVRBS Tools Progression: Increase time, distance, reps, weight Regularity: Train 3 times a week (min) Overload:Train to muscle failure Variety:Mix it up (ex. run, swim, bike) Recovery:Days off, light days / hard days Balance:Long dist/slow pace, short dist/fast pace, low wgt/high reps, high reps/low wgt
Specificity Tools Train specifically to meet training requirements: Ruck runs Road marching Cross-country runs Flak vest PT Log drills Rope climbs Individual movement techniques Litter relays Buddy carries Watercan PT
General Rules • Don’t progress more than 5-10% per week • for Muscular Strength / Endurance (MSE). • Don’t progress more than 10% per week for CRE. • Every day is a recovery day. • Include combined training events (CRE and MSE). • CRE is not limited to just running.
FITT Factors • F requency • I ntensity • T ime • T ype
FITT Factors Applied to Physical Conditioning CRE MS ME 3 - 5 times Weekly F I T T TMF -Temporary Muscle Failure 70-90% MHR ME- 12+ reps, MSE-8-12 reps, MS- 3-7 reps Based on Sets and Reps 20+ min. Running Cycling Rowing Road Marching Swimming Free Weights Machines Free Weights Machines Calisthenics Grass Drills Rifle PT
Transtheoretical Model • 1. Are you seriously considering a change in behavior within the next six months? • If you answered no, you are still in the precontemplation stage. If you answered yes, move up to the contemplation stage. • 2. Are you planning to change in the next month? • You are ready to enter the preparation stage. • 3. Have you tried to change in the past 12 months? • If so, move to the action stage.
Phases of Fitness Conditioning • Preparatory • Conditioning • Maintenance
Exercise Effects • Reduces Blood Pressure • Reduces Total Cholesterol • Increases HDL • Reduces Stress • Reduces Obesity • Reduces Dependence on Cigarettes • Enhances Production of Insulin • Keeps the Body Healthy and Fit
Unit PT • Typically 1 hour long • Usually conducted 4 days a week • Usually NCO led • Typical timeline • - Stretch (5-10 min) • - Exercise (40-50 min) • - Cool down (5-10 min)
Unit PTExtending the Formation 1) Extend to the left, march 2) Arms downward, move 3) Left face 4) Extend to the left, march 5) Arms downward, move • Right face 7) From front to rear, count off 8) Even numbers to the left, uncover
APFT “The APFT is a three event physical performance test used to assess muscular endurance and cardio-respiratory fitness.” “Performance on the APFT is strongly linked to the soldier’s fitness level and his ability to do fitness related tasks.”
APFT Alternate Events: - 800m Swim - 6.2 Mile Bike / Stationary Bike - 2.5 Mile Walk Primary Events: - Push Up - Sit Up - 2 Mile Run • AR 350-15: Army Physical Fitness Program • - Take at least twice a year • - Min 60 pts in each event (180 pts) to pass • - Max score is 300 pts (extended scale is unofficial) • FM 21-20: Physical Fitness Training • AR 600-9: Army Weight Control Program
Alternate Events 800m Swim 2.5 Mile Walk 6.2 Mile Bike