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Radiation and Safety P. Berkvens radiation physics interaction of electrons with matter PowerPoint Presentation
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Radiation and Safety P. Berkvens radiation physics interaction of electrons with matter

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Radiation and Safety P. Berkvens radiation physics interaction of electrons with matter

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  1. Radiation and Safety • P. Berkvens • radiation physics • interaction of electrons with matter • interaction of photons with matter • interaction of neutrons with matter • interaction of protons with matter • radiation protection • definitions • rules • radiation fields around accelerators • electron accelerators • proton accelerators • synchrotron radiation facilities • induced activity • radiation monitors

  2. Ionising radiation  directly ionising: charged particles (electrons, protons, …)  indirectly ionising: photons, neutrons • of the order of 10 eV required to ionise an atom • electromagnetic radiation: (hard ultraviolet)

  3. Radiation and Safety • P. Berkvens • radiation physics • interaction of electrons with matter • interaction of photons with matter • interaction of neutrons with matter • interaction of protons with matter • radiation protection • definitions • rules • radiation fields around accelerators • electron accelerators • proton accelerators • synchrotron radiation facilities • induced activity • radiation monitors

  4. Interaction of electrons with matter The physical processes 1. Ionisation losses inelastic collisions with orbital electrons 2. Bremsstrahlung losses inelastic collisions with atomic nuclei 3. Rutherford scattering elastic collisions with atomic nuclei Positrons at nearly rest energy: annihilation emission of two 511 keV photons

  5. Electrons – stopping power Graphite – Z = 6 Copper – Z = 29 Lead – Z = 82

  6. Continuous Slowing Down Approximation range Radiation yield Fraction of the initial kinetic energy that is converted to bremsstrahlung energy as the electron slows down to rest.

  7. Differential bremsstrahlung cross section mbarn mbarn lead – Z = 82 k/T carbon – Z = 6 k: photon energy T: electron kinetic energy k/T

  8. Multiple scattering mean scattering angle mass scattering power Ssc Es = 21.2 MeV X0: radiation length b: v/c p: momentum

  9. Interaction of photons with matter The physical processes 1. Photo-electric effect removal of an orbital electron of the inner shells (K,L,M) 2.Compton scattering inelastic scattering on loosely bound electrons 3.Pair production production of e-/e+ pair essentially with nuclei 4.Rayleigh scattering elastic scattering not important for radiation physics

  10. Photon cross sections Graphite - Z = 6

  11. Photon cross sections Lead - Z = 82

  12. Photo-electric effect photo-electron DE = E0 – E1 = Ka DE = E – E0 DE = E0 – E2 = Kb E2 E0 E1 E0 E K L M N K L M N incoming X-ray The K lines DE = E1 – E2 = La Auger-electron E1 E1 DE = E1 – E2 – E3 E2 E2 DE = E1 – E3 = Lb K L M N K L M N E3 E3 The L lines Auger electron

  13. Compton scattering scattered photon energy Ec q compton electron energy = E0 - Ec primary photon energy E0 Ec (MeV) ds/dW (re2 x cm2 / electron)

  14. Pair production snucleus Z2 threshold: 1.022 MeV selectron Z threshold: 2.044 MeV

  15. Interaction of photons with matter Macroscopic description - Attenuation factors The mass attenuation coefficient m/r: units: cm2.g-1 The linear attenuation coefficient m: units: cm-1 The conversion factor from s (barns.atom-1) to m/r (cm2.g-1): N d (cm) d (g.cm-2)

  16. Electromagnetic cascade cm one 500 MeV electron interacting with lead target

  17. Electromagnetic cascade cm one 6 GeV electron interacting with lead target

  18. Photonuclear reactions photonuclear reactions Neutron production Photo-pion γ(d,p)n Quasi-deuteron Giant resonance m e-60/Esγ(d,p)n 55Mn(γ, n)54Mn

  19. Photonuclear reactions Neutron production Giant resonance Quasi-deuteron Photo-pion Example: neutron spectrum produced by 600 MeV electrons on Cu target

  20. Interaction of neutrons with matter The physical processes • 1. elastic scattering • compound elastic scattering • potential scattering • 2. inelastic scattering (n,n’) • 3. other inelastic reactions: (n,p), (n,a), … • 4. absorption reactions • radiative capture • charged particle reactions • 5. direct reactions: spallation

  21. Compound nucleus formation target nucleus ZA neutron energy = EC

  22. Neutron cross sections Example 1: iron

  23. Neutron cross sections Example 2: cadmium

  24. Neutron cross sections Example 3: hydrogen

  25. Neutron cross sections Example 4: boron

  26. Neutron cross sections inelastic cross section (barn) Example: iron neutron energy (GeV)

  27. Interaction of neutrons with matter scattered neutron energy = E1 Elastic scattering target nucleus initial neutron energy = E0 recoiling nucleus Minimum energy of scattered neutron: Average energy loss per collision:

  28. Interaction of protons with matter The physical processes • ionisation • inelastic proton-nucleus scattering • spallation

  29. Proton ionisation loss – Stopping power stopping power (MeV.g-1.cm2) minimum ionising particle proton energy (MeV)

  30. Comparison CSDA range of protons and electrons in iron

  31. Inelastic proton – nucleus scattering Spallation reaction n n p p D p incident proton (GeV range) n p intra-nuclear cascade a d n evaporation g

  32. Inelastic proton – nucleus scattering Spallation reaction Inelastic cross section E > 1 GeV

  33. Inelastic proton – nucleus scattering Comparison ionisation energy loss and inelastic scattering  E > 1 GeV: 100 % probability for spallation reaction

  34. n Spallation inter-nuclear cascades n p p D p incident proton (GeV range) n p intra-nuclear cascade Neutron transport below 20 MeV evaporation a d a spallation product a, b, g decay n fast induced fission g p g n n n fission n n n fission products g fission products (n,n’), (n,xn), (n,g) ,… reactions g

  35. Spallation

  36. Radiation and Safety • P. Berkvens • radiation physics • interaction of electrons with matter • interaction of photons with matter • interaction of neutrons with matter • interaction of protons with matter • radiation protection • definitions • rules • radiation fields around accelerators • electron accelerators • proton accelerators • synchrotron radiation facilities • induced activity • radiation monitors

  37. Introduction to radiation protection Fluence F particles per cm2  1/distance2 Activity becquerel (Bq): 1 Bq = 1 s-1 (curie (Ci): 1 Ci = 3.7 1010 Bq) Absorbed dose D Biological effects: Effective dose E - Ambient dose equivalent H*(d) gray (Gy): 1 Gy = 1 J.kg-1 (rad: 1 rad = 0.01 Gy)

  38. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Protection quantities - ICRP Publication 60 (1991) Organ dose DT Individual organ, e.g. stomach Tissue or organ equivalent dose HT,R Unit of equivalent dose: J.kg-1 Special name: sievert (Sv) Old unit: rem (1 Sv = 100 rem)

  39. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Protection quantities - ICRP Publication 60 (1991) Effective dose E S different organs Unit of effective dose: Sv • Dose limits on: • Effective dose E • Tissue or organ equivalent dose HT

  40. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Protection quantities - ICRP Publication 60 (1991) Irradiation geometries Antero-posterior (AP) Postero-anterior (PA) Isotropic (ISO) Lateral (LAT) Rotational (ROT)

  41. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Protection quantities - ICRP Publication 60 (1991) • Basic principles • Radiation protection measures must guarantee that deterministic radiation damage is avoided. Since deterministic damage appears above a threshold dose, this dose must not be exceeded. • The probability of stochastic radiation damage, which has no threshold dose according to the dose-effect relationships currently taken as a basis, must not exceed a justifiable size. • ICRP Publication 60 • The necessity of justifying each radiation application by its benefits. • The demand for optimising radiation protection measures: •  ALARA principle: As Low As Reasonably Achievable. • The establishment of individual limits for radiation exposure of people on the basis of a justifiable risk.

  42. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Protection quantities - ICRP Publication 60 (1991) * 2000 working hours/year ** 8760 hours/year

  43. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Protection quantities - ICRP Publication 103 (2007) neutrons protons: 2 ICRP Publication 103 - Radiation weighting factor wR Tissue weighting factor wT

  44. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements ICRU Report 51 (1993) Protection quantities (ICRP)  operational quantities Dose equivalent Ambient dose equivalent H*(d)  H*(10) (d = 10 mm) Unit of dose equivalent: Sv ICRU sphere 30 cm diameter tissue-equivalent sphere: density 1 g.cm-3 composition by mass: 76.2 % O, 11.1 % C, 10.1 % H and 2.6 % N

  45. Comparison between protection quantities (ICRP) and operational quantities (ICRU) – ICRU Report 57 (1998) Ratio of effective dose E to air kerma free-in-air (AP and ROT) and ratio of ambient dose equivalent H*(10) to air kerma free-to-air as a function of photon energy. Ratio of effective dose E (AP and ROT) to ambient dose equivalent H*(10) as a function of photon energy.

  46. Comparison between protection quantities (ICRP) and operational quantities (ICRU) – ICRU Report 57 (1998) Effective dose E per unit neutron fluence (AP and ROT) and ambient dose equivalent H*(10) per unit neutron fluence as a function of neutron energy. Ratio of effective dose E (AP and ROT) to ambient dose equivalent H*(10) as a function of neutron energy.

  47. Radiation and Safety • P. Berkvens • radiation physics • interaction of electrons with matter • interaction of photons with matter • interaction of neutrons with matter • interaction of protons with matter • radiation protection • definitions • rules • radiation fields around accelerators • electron accelerators • proton accelerators • synchrotron radiation facilities • induced activity • radiation monitors

  48. Prompt radiation fields around accelerators electron accelerators photons (bremsstrahlung) neutrons proton accelerators neutrons synchrotron radiation facilities accelerators beamlines

  49. Radiation fields around electron accelerators Examples of neutron spectra Example 1: calculated neutron spectra for the 1.7 GeV BESSY storage ring (Courtesy of Klaus Ott)

  50. Radiation fields around electron accelerators Examples of neutron spectra Example 2: measured neutron spectrum on the roof of the 6 GeV ESRF storage ring (behind 1.2 m concrete shielding)