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Newton’s 3 rd Law . Physical Science Section 3.3. Newton’s third law of motion when 1 object exerts a force on a 2nd object, the 2nd object exerts a force that is equal in size and opposite in direction to the force from the 1st object For every action, there is an equal & opposite reaction

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## Newton’s 3 rd Law

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**Newton’s 3rd Law**Physical Science Section 3.3**Newton’s third law of motion**• when 1 object exerts a force on a 2nd object, the 2nd object exerts a force that is equal in size and opposite in direction to the force from the 1st object • For every action, there is an equal & opposite reaction • Swimming- swimmer exerts force on water; water exerts force on swimmer • Action-reaction pairs act on different object • Rocket engine- rocket engine exerts force on the hot gases produced by the fuel • gases exert a force on the rocket and push it forward**Newton’s 3rd Law**• Orbit of earth in space influenced by: • gravitational forces between the Sun and the Earth and between other planets and the Earth • Discovery of Neptune • Orbit of Uranus could not be explained by the planets known at the time • Bicycle’s easier to stop than a car- less mass • Less mass = less inertia and less momentum**Object with less speed = less momentum**• Less speed = easier to stop • Momentum- product of mass and velocity- influences how easily an object can be stopped • P = m x v • P : momentum Units kg*m/s2 • Has direction because velocity has direction • Indicate direction of momentum • Force can be calculated by using the final and initial momentum when an object changes its velocity. • F = (mvf – mvi)/t)**Law of conservation of momentum- total momentum does not**change in a collision • Momentum before collision = momentum after collision • 2 objects collide when moving in the same direction • first object slows and the second speeds up in the same direction • 2 objects collide when moving in opposite directions with the same momentum • Start with 0 momentum, collide, bounce off in opposite directions, still have 0 momentum

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