Chapter 20 Rapid Industrialization and Its Challenges 1870-1914
Second Industrial Revolution • Began in 1850’s and 1860’s • Advances in chemical, electrical, and steel industries • Henry Bessemer developed a cheaper, more efficient method of producing steel • Bessemer Process • Durable, strong, flexible steel led to a revolution in construction, shipbuilding, etc.
Advances in Medicine • Improvements in Medical technologies • Anesthesia first used in 1840’s • Louis Pasteur: germ theory (1860’s) • Robert Koch: identifies the bacteria responsible for Tuberculosis • Wilhelm Rontgen: discovers the X-Ray • Use of organic chemistry to create dyes, soaps, and pharmaceuticals
Advances in Medicine • Preventative measures lead to better health • Chemicals used to kill disease-carrying rodents • Construction of better sewage systems • Contagious Disease Act: required prostitutes to undergo examinations for contagious diseases • those with disease were hospitalized • Those who refused faced legal prosecution
Advances in Science • Scientific Advancements • Use of Chemicals to create fertilizers leads to increased agricultural productivity • Dmitri Mendeleev: periodic table • Max Planck: Quantum Theory (p 757) • Albert Einstein: Theory of Relativity, E=MC2 • Marie Curie: isolated Radium • Ernest Rutherford: discovers alpha and beta radiation, describes structure of atom
Transportation • Mass Transportation systems expand • Railroad construction continues • Subways in large cities • Roads constructed for automobiles • Private Transportation • Carl Benz constructed a small automobile • Rudolf Diesel: produced the first successful kerosene-fueled engine • Henry Ford began to produce more affordable vehicles (Model T) • Wright Brothers: first successful flight in 1903
Leisure Activities • Tourism and Travel • Photography • Radio • Silent Films • Shopping: consumerism and mass culture • Sports • Modern Olympics began in 1896
Demographic Boom • Rapid Population growth • Better nutrition • Better medical knowledge • Infant mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases • Contraception use more widespread • Birth rates decline • Abortion common despite the fact that it was illegal and dangerous • P. 760