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Darwin VS. Lamarck

Darwin VS. Lamarck

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Darwin VS. Lamarck

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  1. Darwin VS. Lamarck Chapter 15-2

  2. First to propose the theory of evolution. Lamarck claimed that species are descendents from early ancestors. Fossil records supported his findings. Jean Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829)

  3. Lamarck’s Theory • Lamarck claimed that species changed over time due to an acquired trait. • Acquired trait- A trait not determined by genes but acquired through a life time. • Lamarck’s theory was later proven false.

  4. Charles Darwin came up with a different theory to explain how evolution takes place. Darwin collected evidence for his theory on his journey around the world on a ship called the H.M.S. Beagle. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

  5. Natural Selection • Darwin’s theory was based on the idea of what he called natural selection. • Natural selection- Organisms best suited to their environment reproduce more successfully than other organisms. Thus passing down their favorable traits to their offspring.

  6. Voyage of the Beagle • One of Darwin's most famous collections from his trip was the collection of finches from the Galapagos islands.

  7. The Finches • Darwin collected 13 different species of finches from the island. • Each bird had a distinct bill specialized for a particular food source. • Darwin later concluded that these 13 species came from one common ancestor. • Darwin thought that the original ancestors had migrated from the nearby coast of South America.

  8. The Origin of Species • Darwin later published his findings in a book titled the Origin of Species.

  9. Survival of the Fittest We often use the term “survival of the fittest” What does this mean?

  10. Survival of the Fittest • Animals with favorable traits will survive and pass those genes to the offspring. • The contribution of genes an organism gives to the next generation is called fitness.

  11. Fitness • As more favorable genes are contributed to the population the organisms will change over time. • This is Darwin’s idea of natural selection. • The process by which a population becomes better suited to its environment is known as adaptation.

  12. THE FORMATION OF A NEW SPECIES Chapter 15-3 and 16-3 Notes

  13. Homologous Structure • Homologous Structure- Similar features that are found in a shared ancestor.

  14. Vestigial Structures • Vestigial Structure- Structures that were useful to ancestors now have no purpose.

  15. Vestigial Structures

  16. Vestigial Structures

  17. Similarities in Embryology • The early stages of different vertebrate embryos are strikingly similar to each other. • The similar appearance provides further evidence that species originated from a common ancestor.

  18. Similarities in Macromolecules • Darwin based many of his conclusions on the physical similarities between organisms. • Darwin was unable to examine similarities at a molecular level. • Scientists have later studied the molecular similarities between different organisms.

  19. Molecular Similarities • The similarity in amino acid sequence can determine how closely related two species are. • And how long ago they branched off the evolutionary chain and developed a new species.

  20. Analogous Structures • When organisms that vary greatly anatomically evolve similar structures that serve similar functions. • Example: bird wing and insect wing • Example: bird beak and giant squid beak • Share very distant relatives.

  21. Co- Evolution • The change of two or more species in close association with each other is called co-evolution. • Example: Bat and flower

  22. Some flowers and bees have coevolved in a way that their existence depends on each other.

  23. Convergent Evolution • Selection that causes two species to become very similar to each other even though they have very different ancestors. • Example- Dolphin and Shark

  24. Convergent Evolution

  25. Divergent Evolution • Two or more related populations or species become more and more dissimilar. • Divergence is nearly always a response to differing environmental factors and can ultimately result in new species. • The rate of divergent evolution among dogs has been increased by artificial selection in humans.

  26. Speciation Speciation- Is the formation of new species which results in many related populations of organisms.

  27. Biological Species Concept The Biological Species Concept states- A species is a population of organisms that can successfully interbreed but can not breed with other groups.

  28. Biological Species Concept • The biological species concept works great for living organisms but is difficult for organisms that have since become extinct.

  29. Speciation • In order for speciation to occur there must be isolation. • In isolation two parts of formerly interbreeding populations stop interbreeding. • Why is isolation important for speciation to occur?

  30. Speciation • Two major types of isolation frequently drive speciation • Geographic Isolation • Reproductive Isolation

  31. Geographic Isolation • Geographic Isolation- Is the physical separation of members of a population. Examples • Canyon formation • Shrinking ponds - Islands

  32. Reproductive Isolation • Reproductive Isolation- Reproductive isolation results from barriers to successful breeding between population groups in the same area.