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“We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity…… What is this from? And What does it mean?.
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“We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity…… • What is this from? And What does it mean?
Convention • Why was it clear that the Articles of the Confederation were not working? • Annapolis Convention – Conference of state delegates at Annapolis, Maryland, that issued a call in September 1786 for a convention to meet at Philadelphia to consider fundamental changes
Convention At Work • Constitutional Convention – Convention that met in Philadelphia in 1787 and drafted the Constitution of the United States. • George Washington was unanimously chosen as the convention’s presiding officer. • All States are represented at the convention with the exception of Rhode Island (55 Delegates total)
Convention At Work • Congress authorized only a revision of the Articles of Confederation. Almost immediately the delegates set about replacing the Articles.
Virginia Plan • Drafted by James Madison • Bicameral legislature, executive and judiciary branches • Allowed National Government the power to nullify any state laws if it was contrary to the “articles of Union” • Made representation in both houses of Congress based on population
New Jersey Plan • Introduced by William Paterson • Called for Unicameral Legislature, Executive and Judicial Branch • One State, One Vote • Gave the National Government the power to tax and to regulate domestic and foreign commerce. • Gave acts of Congress precedence over State legislation
The Great Compromise • Proposal by Roger Sherman • What was the Goal? • Split Congress into two houses (Senate and House of Representatives) • Senate: each State is given two votes (Satisfies NJ Plan) • House of Rep: Number of seats made proportional to population (Satisfies VA Plan)
The Great Compromise • Free Vs. Slave States • Free States wanted slaves to count for tax assessments, but excluded for apportioning representation • Slave States wanted slaves to not count for tax assessments, but be counted for apportioning representation
The Great Compromise • Three-fifths compromise • Three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for representation based on taxes and apportionment
Further Compromise • Issue of Slavery • Congress would be barred from acting against the slave trade for twenty years. • Slaves that escaped to the North would be returned to the South. • National Executive and Electoral College • Settled on one executive (The President) • How to be chosen? • Electoral College -Electors from each state choose the president. Most votes wins. This was eventually changed by the 12th amendment.
The Constitution and its powers • Power granted on taxes and armed forces • Source of power – Shared though federalism between states and the national government • What is Federalism? • Helped strengthen national government with out obliterating sovereign rights of the states. • Representation in Congress – Bicameral legislature (Senate and House of Rep)
The Constitution and its Powers • Amendment process – Consent of three-fourths of the states • Executive – Office of the President • National Judiciary – Established the Supreme Court • Created a system of Checks and Balances
Struggle over Ratification • The last article of the Constitution stipulated it would go into effect when it had been ratified by at least nine of the states. Submitted September 1787 • Federalists – Supporters of the Constitution who favored its ratification • Antifederalists – opponents of the Constitution in the debate over its ratification
Struggle of Ratification • December 7, 1787 Delaware ratified • Penn, NJ, GA, and Conn. soon followed • Biggest argument of Antifederalists was a lack of Bill of Rights – Framers promised to amend a Bill of Rights into the Constitution (Help sway votes) • Feb. 1788 Mass ratifies • The Federalist papers (Written by Madison, Jay, Hamilton) Helped sway the vote in New York and Virginia