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How are breathing and C.R. related? PowerPoint Presentation
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How are breathing and C.R. related?

How are breathing and C.R. related?

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How are breathing and C.R. related?

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  1. How are breathing and C.R. related?

  2. How is energy created in a controlled manner? • Oxygen acts as the final “e- acceptor” • WHY? • Oxygen has a – charge • Attracts 2 + charged H+

  3. Electron Transport Chain • Driven by Oxygen (which is the electron acceptor) • Instead of one quick release of a massive amount of energy (lost as light and heat) energy is released in small amounts

  4. G ATP is converted to ADP by losing a phosphate giving off ENERGY.

  5. Cellular respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

  6. What is metabolism? • All of the cellular processes that occur within your body (breaking down or building up chemical compounds) • Cellular respiration is a metabolic pathway because it is a long series of reactions that are carried out to complete a process. • Where does most of the metabolic pathway of cellular respiration take place? • MITOCHONDRIA

  7. 3 stages of Cellular Respiration

  8. STAGE 1: GLYCOLYSIS • Energy investment stage because it uses an initial input of 2 ATP • Creates 4 ATP • Net gain of 2 ATP • Sugar splitting stage because it splits 1 glucose molecule into 2 pyruvate

  9. Recap of Glycolysis • Location • Cytoplasm • Energy invested • 2 ATP • Net gain of ATP • 2 ATP • Starting material • Glucose • Ending material • 2 pyruvates • (pyruvic acid) • Total # of NADH • 2 NADH

  10. Stage 2: Krebs Cycle Pyruvate must be converted to acetyl CoA to enter Krebs by losing a CO2 3 CO2 per pyruvic acid 3 water molecules created per pyruvate Since glucose splits into 2pyruvate: each glucose molecule goes through the cycle 2 times

  11. Quick Recap of the Citric Acid Cycle • How many turns of the cylce per glucose? • 2 • Per turn # of each created • ATP • 1 • FAHD2 • 1 • NADH • 1 in creating acetlyCoA • 3 per turn of Krebs • Total energy molecules • 2 ATP • 2 FADH2 • 8 NADH • Byproducts include • 2 CO2 per turn so 4 total CO2 • 1 CO2 creating acetyl CoA so total of 6 CO2

  12. Electron Transport Chain NADH = 3 ATP FADH2 = 2 ATP Final e- acceptor

  13. OVERALL • NADH in glycolysis = 2 x 3 = 6 ATP • NADH in Krebs = 4 x 2 turns = 8 x 3 = 24 ATP • FADH2 in Krebs = 1 x 2 turns = 2 x 2 = 4 ATP • ATP in glycolysis = 2 ATP • ATP in Krebs = 1 x 2 turns = 2 ATP • TOTAL ATP = 38 ATP

  14. Anaerobic Respiration • Reactions do not require oxygen to proceed. • When anaerobic respiration takes place in cells it is referred to as • Fermentation: energy production in a cell under aerobic conditions • Sugar  alcohol • Sugar  lactic acid

  15. Alcohol Fermentation The NAD+ created in fermentation is used to fuel the process Powered from NADH created during Glycolysis

  16. Lactic acid fermentation • Converts pyruvate into lactic acid. • Occurs in muscle cells and bacteria. • Fueled by the NAD+ made during fermentation.