(Mostly) micro-hydro (mostly) in Thailand Chris Greacen SEI micro-hydro Guemes Island 23 Oct 2008
Outline • Ph.D. topic -- government/village micro-hydropower in Thailand • Very Small Power Producer (VSPP) • Pico-hydros in Thailand
Average cost: micro-hydro vs. grid for 25 years of electricity to a remote household Source: Microhydro data from construction costs of existing microhydro projects from Panya Consultants Co. (1993). Kroonggaan Padtana Fai Faa Palang Naam Radap Muu Baan (Village Scale Microhydro Development Projects). Bangkok, Thailand, Department of Energy Development and Promotion Grid costs from Price Waterhouse CoopersPrice Waterhouse Coopers (2000). Review of Electric Power Tariffs National Energy Policy Office of Thailand -- Final Report -- Annexes H-R. Bangkok, Thailand.
Number of villages servedmicro-hydro vs. the grid (as claimed) Source: PEA Annual Report 2000; DEDP “mini and microhydopower”
How well do micro-hydro installations work in the field in Thailand? Of 59 systems installed, less than half still in operation
Voltage at Mae Kam Pong village microhydro from 25 June to 23 September 2001
Mae Kam Pong Microhydro Unit #2 Voltage andCurrent (15 minute intervals) 6 Sept to 8 Sept 2001
Hourly load curve, by year from 1985 to 2000. Graph based on an appliance usage survey of 35 families in Mae Kam Pong village, April and June 2001.
Contribution to evening maximum peak demand by appliance, for the years 1985 – 2001.
Small is beautifulpitiful: Community Micro-hydroelectricity and the Politics of Rural Electrification in Thailand Chris Sangarasri Greacen ERG – UC Berkeley Ph.D. colloquium presentation – 4 Dec, 2002 Thanks to… Ph.D. Dissertation Committee: Dan Kammen, Dick Norgaard, Jeff Romm Switzer Network Mentors: Jim Williams and Margaret Torn EPA-STAR Fellowship, Switzer Environmental Fellowship
Summary from the village level:“it still doesn’t add up” + - Local integrated development benefits Cost effective rural electricity Resolvable technical and managerial challenges ? = + Rarely implemented Existing installations replaced by grid
1966: USAID plan dismisses decentralized micro-hydroelectricity “The view has been advanced by some that the construction and operation of hydroelectric plants... is necessary in order to demonstrate the interest of the Government in the welfare of the people, particularly in the so-called "sensitive areas" where the very low income status of the population makes them susceptible to the propaganda of Asian Communism. Others believe that … the funds available can be put to better use by building transmission and rural distribution facilities to bring power from large, centrally located generation stations which are …less exposed to damage or destruction by subversive or enemy action. The team endorses the later option.” USAID (1966). Thailand Electric Power Supply, US Agency for International Development, United States Operations Mission.
Very Small Power Producer (VSPP) Regulations in Thailand • VSPP forces grid monopoly to accommodate small, distributed generation • Streamlined interconnection • Production is valued at the retail rate (net metering)… 80% of retail rate for net excess. • In Thailand • Cabinet approval 14 May 2002 • 1 MW net export per project • All renewables • 2006 expanded • 1 MW 10 MW net export. • Feed-in tariffs
Mae Kam Pong, Chiang Mai DEDE + community 40 kW About $130,000 cost Sell electricity to PEA – $13,000/year
Rice husk fired power plant BiomassBiogas • 9.8 MW • Roi Et province • Average VSPP tariff for biomass: 2.9 baht/kWh (incl. subsidy 0.3 baht/kWh) Potential: 7000 MW Source: Thai Ministry of Energy 2003
Korat Waste to Energy - biogas • Uses waste water from cassava to make methane • Produces gas for all factory heat (30 MW thermal) + 3 MW of electricity • 3 x 1 MW gas generators • Subsidy 0.3 baht/kWh
Reduces air and water pollution Produces fertilizer Produces electricity 8 x 70 kW generator Ratchaburi Subsidy: 0.3 baht/kwh Biogas from Pig Farms
Bangkok Solar 1 MW PV • Project size: 1 MW • Uses self-manufactured a-Si
Kre Khi village, Tak province About 1 kW Chinese Permanent Magnet turgo 8 meters head
E Wi Jo village microhydro Estimated power: 0.750 kW Head: 20 meters Flow: 20 liters/second Total installed cost: baht 100,000
Huai Krating Microhydro 2005 3 kW pump as turbine 35 meters head Pump and motor cost: $750 Controller cost: $500 or so