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The 5 Major World Religions

The 5 Major World Religions

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The 5 Major World Religions

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  1. The 5 Major World Religions

  2. Where are the Religions?

  3. Types of Religions • Monotheistic – religion with one god • Polytheistic – religion with many gods • Caste System – a hierarchy where some people are considered higher in standing than others • Major five religions: • Judaism - Christianity -Hinduism • Islam - Buddhism

  4. Judaism • Early History • ~1950 BC, Abraham’s Covenant • Travel to Canaan then to Egypt • Slavery in Egypt • Moses & the Exodus • One God • TEXT: The Torah • Pentateuch • Old Testament • Abraham’s History • Mishnah • Writings of the Prophets • Talmud • Other Writings of the Jewish Tradition Abraham & Isaac Torah Moses & the 10 Commandments

  5. Beliefs and Customs • Religious Customs • Prayer 3 x a day • Worship on the Sabbath day Saturday • Whole Torah (Pentateuch) is read each year • Diet • Food must be Kosher • Holy Days & Festivals • Passover (spring) • Shabouth (fall) • RoshHashanah • Yom Kippur, the day of Atonement • Hannukkah (Winter) • Purim (March)

  6. Basic Christianity • History • 2000 yrs ago • The Apostles • Christ’s Death • Texts • The Bible • Beliefs • The Holy Trinity • Immaculate Conception • The Afterlife • Customs & Holidays • Weekly Worship • Holy Week • Palm Sunday • Maundy Thursday • Good Friday • Easter • Christmas Christ on the Cross, Velazquez Icon depicting the First Council of Nicaea The Holy Trinity, Albrecht Duerer

  7. Islam: The 5 Pillars • Faith • There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger • Prayer (Salat) • 5 x daily • Charity (Zakat) • All Things belong to Allah so we should donate to the Needy • Fast • During Ramadan, from sun up to sundown. • Pilgrimage (Hajj) • Once in a lifetime trip to Mecca and the Ka’ba

  8. Islam • History -Islam is the second most popular religion in the world with over a thousand million followers. It is more often thought of as a complete way of life rather than a religion. Islam began in Arabia and was revealed to humanity by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Those who follow Islam are called Muslims. • God - Muslims believe that there is only one God, called Allah. Islam is mainly followed in the Middle East, Asia, and the north of Africa. • Text – The Koran (Qur’an) • Holy Days – Ramadan (holy fasting) and Pilgrimage (Hajj)

  9. Hinduism Hindu Gods: Many Forms of One God • 4000 – 2500 BCE • Aryan Peoples • Oral Tradition: Vedas & Upanishads • Aryan Caste System • Brahmins: Priests • Ksatriyas: Warriors & Rulers • Vaisyas: Merchants, Farmers, Artisans • Sudras: Manual Laborers • Untouchables: Dirty Work • Hindu Beliefs: Hamster Wheel • Brahman • Atman • Reincarnation • Karma • Moksha • Texts: Scriptures • Shruti • Smritis • Holy Days - Karva Chauth, Dhan Teras, Deepavali minor, & Deepavali major. Brahma: The Creator Siva: The Destroyer Vishnu: The Preserver

  10. Buddhism • Siddartha Gautama, 560-490 BCE • The Buddha: The Enlightened One • Buddhist Beliefs • No Real Gods or Deities • Goal: Nirvana not Brahma • Four Noble Truths • Life is Suffering • Suffering is caused by desire & resistance to change • We can end suffering by ending desire • We can end desire and suffering by following the eightfold path • Eight Fold Path • Right Understanding • Right Thought • Right Speech • Right Action • Right Livelihood • Right Effort • Right Mindfulness • Right Concentration -Prayer: Meditation -No Specifically related text Asoka: 273-232 BC