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The Skeletal System 1 PowerPoint Presentation
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The Skeletal System 1

The Skeletal System 1

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The Skeletal System 1

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  1. The Skeletal System 1

  2. Parts of the skeletal system Divided into two divisions • Axial skeleton • Appendicular skeleton The Skeletal System

  3. Functions of Bones • Movement due to attached skeletal muscles • Storage of minerals and fats • Blood cell formation

  4. Bones of the Human Body • The skeleton has 206 bones • Two basic types of bone tissue Figure 5.2b

  5. Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape Figure 5.1

  6. Classification of Bones Long bones • Contain mostly compact bone • Examples: Femur, humerus Short bones • Contain mostly spongy bone • Examples: Carpals, tarsals

  7. Classification of Bones Flat bones • Usually curved • Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum Irregular bones • Do not fit into other bone classification categories • Example: Vertebrae and hip

  8. Diaphysis • Epiphysis Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone

  9. Slide 5.7 • Periosteum • Fibrous connective tissue membrane • Sharpey’s fibers • Secure periosteum to underlying bone • Arteries • Supply bone cells with nutrients Structures of a Long Bone

  10. Articular cartilage • Covers the external surface of the epiphyses • Made of hyaline cartilage Structures of a Long Bone Figure 5.2a

  11. Medullary cavity • Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults • Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants Structures of a Long Bone Figure 5.2a

  12. During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone • Cartilage remains in isolated areas • Bridge of the nose • Parts of ribs • Joints Changes in the Human Skeleton

  13. Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood • New cartilage is continuously formed • Older cartilage becomes ossified • Cartilage is broken down • Bone replaces cartilage Bone Growth

  14. Long Bone Formation and Growth

  15. Long Bone Formation and Growth

  16. A break in a bone • Types of bone fractures • Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization • Realignment of the bone Bone Fractures

  17. Common Types of Fractures

  18. Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture Figure 5.5

  19. The Axial Skeleton • Divided into three parts • Skull • Vertebral column • Bony thorax

  20. The Axial Skeleton

  21. The Skull • Two sets of bones • Bones are joined by sutures • Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint

  22. The Skull

  23. Paranasal Sinuses • Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity • Functions of paranasal sinuses

  24. The Hyoid Bone • Serves as a moveable base for the tongue

  25. Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs • Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location The Vertebral Column

  26. Structure of a Typical Vertebrae

  27. Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae

  28. The Bony Thorax • Made-up of three parts • Sternum • Ribs • Thoracic vertebrae