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Chapter 17: Revolution and Enlightenment (1550-1800) PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 17: Revolution and Enlightenment (1550-1800)

Chapter 17: Revolution and Enlightenment (1550-1800)

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Chapter 17: Revolution and Enlightenment (1550-1800)

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  1. Chapter 17: Revolution and Enlightenment (1550-1800)

  2. Section 1: The Scientific Revolution

  3. Causes of the Scientific Revolution • “Natural Philosophers” – medieval scientists – Aristotle • Impact of the Renaissance • Greek and Latin languages • Ptolemy, Archimedes, and Plato • New Technology and Mathematics • Ships - trade • New instruments • Telescope and microscope • Printing press • Searching for scientific discoveries • James Cook • chronometer • scurvy • Francois Viete • foundation for the invention of Trigonometry • Simon Stevin • decimal system • John Napier • table of logarithms • Study of mathematics • Nicolas Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton Scientific Revolution • With the development of algebra, geometry and trigonometry

  4. Scientific Breakthroughs • Ptolemaic System • Geocentric • “prime mover” • Nicolas Copernicus • On Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres • Heliocentric • Johannes Kepler • Kepler’s First Law • Galileo Galilei • The Starry Messenger • Isaac Newton • Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Principia) • “World Machine” • Breakthroughs in Medicine • Galen – Greek Physician • Revolution in Medicine: • Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey • Breakthroughs in Chemistry • Robert Boyle • Antoine Lavoisier

  5. Women’s Contributions • Margaret Cavendish • Received a traditional female education – no science • Wrote a number of works on scientific matters • Maria Winkelmann • Astronomer - her husband Gottfried Kirch • Discovered a comet • University of Berlin

  6. Philosophy and Reason • Descartes and Rationalism • Rene Descartes • Discourse on Method • “I think therefore I am” • Separation of mind and matter • Father of Modern Rationalism • Bacon and the Scientific Method • Creation of the Scientific Method • Francis Bacon • Believed the scientific method would benefit science that would benefit industry, agriculture, and trade – and help to control and dominate nature

  7. Section 2: The Enlightenment

  8. Path to the Enlightenment • Enlightenment was a philosophical movement Scientific Revolution • Reason was the key word for the philosophers • Reason, natural law, hope, progress • John Locke • Essay Concerning Human Understanding • tabula rasa • Isaac Newton • “World Machine • Enlightenment thinkers

  9. Ideas of the Philosophers • Intellectuals of the Enlightenment were known as Philosophe • Role of Philosophy • “applies himself to the study of society with the purpose of making his kind better and happier” • Use reason and facts • Montesquieu • Charles-Louis de Secondat, the baron de Montesquieu • The Sprit of the Laws • Scientific Method • 3 basic kinds of governments: • Three Branches • Separation of Powers • Checks and Balances • Francois-Marie Arouet – simply know as Voltaire • Treatise on Toleration • “all men are brothers under God” • Promoted Deism • Denis Diderot • Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades

  10. New Social Sciences • Social Sciences • Smith on Economics • Physiocrats • individuals were free to pursue their own economic self-interest, • Laissez-faire– (to let people do what they want) • Adam Smith • The Wealth of Nations – the state should not interfere in economic matters • Role of government • CesareBeccaria • On Crimes and Punishment • “Is it not absurd, that the laws, which punish murder, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves?”

  11. The spread of Ideas • The social Contract • Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind • The Social Contract • Emile • Women’s Rights • Mary Wollstonecraft • A Vindication of the Rights of women • The Growth of Reading • 18th century growth of publishing and the reading public • Development of magazines and newspapers • First daily newspaper was printed in London in 1702 • The Salon • Salons– drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class’s houses • Religion in the Enlightenment • Europeans remained devoutly Catholic • Protestant Churches developed but were weak • Methodism- John Wesley • Gave the lower and middle class

  12. Section 3: The Impact of the Enlightenment

  13. Enlightenment and Absolutism • Philosophes believed in Natural rights for all people: • Equality before the law • Freedom of Religious worship • Freedom of speech • Freedom of the press • Right to assemble, hold property and to pursue happiness • Enlightened rulers • Enlightened Absolutism • New type of monarch • But did they really change?

  14. Prussia: Army Bureaucracy • Fredrick William I • Highly efficient Bureaucracy • Civil Servants • Nobility • Fredrick William II (Fredrick the Great) • Educated • Voltaire • Dedicated ruler • Nobility • Limited reforms • Enlightenment reforms

  15. The Austrian Empire • largest and most powerful Empires • Difficult to rule • Maria Theresa • Inherited the throne in 1740 • Worked to control the empire • Joseph II • Most of the reforms failed • Russian Empire • Catherine the Great • Peter the Great • Six successors • Peter III • Catherine II Catherine the Great • Enlightenment reforms • Denis Diderot • Nobility • Rebellion led by Yemelyan Pugachov

  16. The Seven Years’ War • Austrian Succession • Charles VI • Maria Theresa • Fredrick II of Prussia • Austrian Silesia • France -Prussia and Great Britain - Austria • The war of Austrian Succession (1740 – 1748) • 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle(1748) • Silesia • The War in Europe • Change of alliances • 1756 – 1763 The Seven Years’ War: • War – Europe, India and North America • Silesia • The War in India • Great Britain and France • Treaty of Paris 1763 • The War in North America • British and French Colonies – Trade • French and Indian War • Treaty of Paris

  17. Enlightenment and the Arts • Architecture • Versailles (Louis XIV) • Unique Architectural Style • Balthasar Neumann • Church of the Fourteen Saints • Palace of Prince-bishop Wurzburg • Art • Baroque and neoclassical styles • 1730’s – Rococo • Rococo Style • Emphasized • Highly secular • Antonie Watteau • Embarkation for Cythera • Giovanni Battista Tiepolo • Fresco painting • Allegory of the Planets and Continents

  18. Music • Johann Sebastian Bach • Mass in B Minor • George Frederic Handel • Messiah • Franz Joseph Hayden • The Creation and The Seasons • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart • The Marriage of Figaro • The Magic Flute • Don Giovanni • Literature • Henry Fielding – English writer • The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling