Is the organism learning associations between events that it doesn’t control? Is the organism learning associations between its behavior and resulting events? Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement Schedules How often to you give the reinforcer? • Every time or just sometimes you see the behavior?
Continuous v. Partial Reinforcement Continuous Partial Reinforce the behavior only SOME of the times it is exhibited. Acquisition comes more slowly. But is more resistant to extinction. FOUR types of Partial Reinforcement schedules. • Reinforce the behavior EVERYTIME the behavior is exhibited. • Usually done when the subject is first learning to make the association. • Acquisition comes really fast. • But so does extinction.
Ratio Schedules Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Provides a reinforcement after a RANDOM number of responses. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction. • Provides a reinforcement after a SET number of responses. Fixed Ratio- She gets a manicure for every 5 pounds she loses.
Interval Schedules Fixed Interval Variable Interval Requires a RANDOM amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Very hard to get acquisition but also very resistant to extinction. • Requires a SET amount of time to elapse before giving the reinforcement. Pop Quiz!! Fixed Interval: She gets a manicure for every 7 days she stays on her diet.
Getting a bonus for every 20 items sold. • Getting a paycheck at the end of the week. • Waiting for a taxi. • Signaling for a ride while hitchhiking. • Carpet cleaner gets to take a break after having cleaned three rooms. • Random drug testing at work. • Checking the oven to see if cookies are done, when cooking time is known. • Winning at a game of BINGO. • A strawberry picker receives $1 after filling 12 small boxes with strawberries. • Getting clean clothes from the washing machine once the cycle is finished. • A charitable organization making phone calls for donations