10th American History Unit II- Becoming a World Power Chapter 7 Section 3 Roosevelt and Latin America
The United States and Latin America • The Big Idea • The United States expanded its role in Latin America in the early 1900s. • Main Ideas • The United States built the Panama Canal in the early 1900s. • Theodore Roosevelt changed U.S. policy toward Latin America. • Presidents Taft and Wilson promoted U.S. interests in Latin America.
Main Idea 1: The United States built the Panama Canal in the early 1900s. To build a narrow canal across the narrow neck of Central America • Link the Atlantic and Pacific oceans • Cut 8,000 miles off the sea voyage from the West to the East coasts of the United States • Allow U.S. Navy to quickly link Atlantic and Pacific fleets The Goal
Revolution in Panama • Panamanian revolutionaries planned a revolt against Colombia. • The United States assisted them. • Helped the rebellion succeed • Recognized Panama as an independent country • New Panamanian government made lease agreement with United States. • $10 million plus $250,000 a year for 99-year lease on a 10-mile wide strip of land across the isthmus
Building the Panama Canal • Difficult to build • Workers faced tropical diseases, though risk of yellow fever and malaria were reduced by Dr. William Gorgas, who organized successful effort to rid the area of disease carrying mosquitoes. • Working in the high mountains with explosives was dangerous. • Some 6,000 people died making the canal. • The Panama Canal opened on August 15, 1914, linking Atlantic and Pacific Oceans • Took ten years to complete and cost $375 million
Panama Canal • The American expenditures from 1904 to 1914 totaled $352,000,000, far more than the cost of anything built by the United States Government up to that time. Together the French and American expenditures totaled $639,000,000. It took 34 years from the initial effort in 1880 to actually open the Canal in 1914. It is estimated that over 80,000 persons took part in the construction and that over 30,000 lives were lost in both French and American efforts. • 1878- French company tries building a canal across Panama- Paid Columbia for rights. • French Failed and gave up • 1898- U.S. government buys up the French rights and equipmentto the canal for $40 million. • The United States and the new state of Panama signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty, by which the United States guaranteed the independence of Panama and secured a perpetual lease on a 10-mile strip for the canal. Panama was to be compensated by an initial payment of $10 million and an annuity of $250,000, beginning in 1913. • The U.S. helped Panama gain its independence from Columbia.
Canal Construction • Length- 51 miles • 11.5 to Gatun Locks • 40 miles across Lake Gatun to the Pedro Miguel locks • The Pedro Miguel locks lower ships 9.4 metres, then on to the Miraflores Locks which lower ships 16 metres to sea level at the canals Pacific terminus in the bay of Panama. • The Panama Canal was constructed in two stages. The first between 1881 and 1888, being the work carried out by the French company headed by de Lessop and secondly the work by the Americans which eventually completed the canals construction between 1904 and 1914.
Roosevelt and the Canal • Roosevelt ordered army engineers to start digging. Thousands of workers sweated in the malarial heat. They tore up jungles and cut down mountains. Insects thrived in muddy, stagnant pools. "Mosquitoes get so thick you get a mouthful with every breath," a worker complained. The mosquitoes also carried yellow fever, and many fell victim to the deadly disease before Dr. William Gorgas found a way to stop it. • Some Americans did not approve of Roosevelt's behavior. "There was much accusation about my having acted in an 'unconstitutional' manner," Teddy shrugged. "I took the isthmus, started the canal, and then left Congress -- not to debate the canal, but to debate me. . . . While the debate goes on, the canal does too; and they are welcome to debate me as long as they wish, provided that we can go on with the canal.” • Roosevelt liked to repeat an old African saying: "Speak softly, and carry a big stick. You will go far." In Panama, Teddy proved to the world that he was willing to use his big navy as a stick to further American interests
Problems and Solutions Columbia French Connection U.S. sends wawrships to Panama to protect U.S. lives Helps Panama with the Revolution and Independence. Panama now makes a deal with the U.S. for a 10 mile wide strip of land. $10 million and $250,000 lease per year. Harsh working conditions, engineering and logistical problems, malaria, and yellow fever hampered construction. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty Columbia owned Panama Columbia had made a deal with the French to build the canal. U.S. offered Columbia $10 Million, but they want $30 million Revolution for Independence in Panama, aided by U.S. warships- who would not let Columbian ships land troops. Failed attempt- 1878 – Paid Columbia for the rights. Builder of Suez Canal in charge Money problems, disease, and construction problems. 1898- sold their rights and equipment to the U.S. for $40 million. Panama Canal Began in 1904 Expenses for the U.S.- $352 Million Total- 51 mile, locks. 34 years to build Opened 1914- Treaty ratified 1921 80,000 workers and 30,000 deaths Yellow Fever- Dr. Gorgas and the Mosquito. Columbia- $26 million Commerical Reasons: Transportation Cost lower- 60% All-water route is shorter. Military Reasons- Navy needs to be able to move from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean for defense. Across Panama was the shortest route. American Foreign policy under T. Roosevelt. Addition to Monroe Doctrine. U.S. has the right to intervene In Latin American affairs. International police force. “Speak Softly and carry a big stick.” Great White Fleet. Roosevelt Corollary Building the Canal Purpose- Why?
Problems and Solutions Columbia French Connection Panama Canal Purpose- Why? Roosevelt Corollary Building the Canal
Building the Panama Canal • Identify – What nation did the Isthmus of Panama originally belong to? • Make Inferences- Did President Roosevelt want to go to war with Columbia? Why or why not? • Evaluate – What is your opinion of the importance of Dr. Gorgas’ contribution to the canal project?
Building the Panama Canal • Identify – Panama City is nearest which ocean? • Identify Cause and Effect- In what ways did the Panama Canal affect U.S. exports? • Analyze – Construction of the canal cost $366,650,000. Annual shipping savings from the East coast to the West coast was $32,780,000 million. If this was the only savings, when would the canal have paid for itself?
Main Idea 2: Theodore Roosevelt changed U.S. policy toward Latin America. The Panama Canal allowed the United States to become more involved in Latin America. American military power grew stronger and allowed the United States to enforce the Monroe Doctrine. President Roosevelt created a policy called the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine to force debtor nations to repay loans to Europe—the United States would intervene in any “wrongdoing” by Latin American countries. The United States became the “international police power” in the Western Hemisphere.
Roosevelt Corollary “Big Stick” Policy of TR. Addition to Monroe Doctrine United States would intervene as a last resort to keep other powers out and ensure financial stability United States increasingly used military force to restore internal stability to nations in the region United States might "exercise international police power It did serve as justification for U.S. intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic
Main Idea 3: Presidents Taft and Wilson promoted U.S. interests in Latin America. • President William Howard Taft acted to protect U.S. interests in Latin America. • Used dollar diplomacy policy—influencing governments through economic, not military, intervention • Loaned money to Nicaragua in exchange for control of the National Bank of Nicaragua and the railway • Sent U.S. Marines to Nicaragua in 1911 to protect American interests • Woodrow Wilson believed that the United States had a moral obligation to promote democracy. • Often sent troops into Latin America to prevent foreign intervention or political unrest • Sent troops to assist Mexico’s government in the Mexican Revolution
Dollar Diplomacy- Taft • 1909-1913 • Goal of diplomacy was to create stability and order abroad that would best promote American commercial interests • Extensive U.S. interventions in the Caribbean and Central America, especially in measures undertaken to safeguard American financial interests in the region • U.S. to further its foreign policy aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power.
The Mexican Revolution • Mexicans revolted against harsh rule of dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910. • War affected U.S. interests. • Business leaders feared they would lose their investments worth over $1 billion. • The United States entered the war. • 1914: U.S. Navy seized city of Veracruz and prevented weapons from reaching the rebels. • 1916: General John J. Pershing and about 15,000 U.S. soldiers were sent to catch the rebel leader Francisco “Pancho” Villa, who had killed 17 Americans in New Mexico. • In 1917, a new constitution began to bring order to Mexico.
Changes in U.S. Foreign Policy • Washington’s Farewell Address United States will not become involved in European affairs. • Monroe Doctrine • United States will defend its interests in Western Hemisphere and keep European powers out. • Roosevelt Corollary • United States will police wrongdoing by nations in Western Hemisphere. • Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy • United States will use economic means to aid its interests in Latin America. • Wilson and Democracy • The United States will promote and protect democracy in the Western Hemisphere.
U.S. Policy Toward Latin America • Describe – What idea did the Monroe Doctrine express? • Make Inferences- What can you infer about U.S. military strength during Monroe’s presidency? • Evaluate – Should the U.S. have acted as a “police officer” to the region?
U.S. Policy Toward Latin America • Explain – What did the U.S. get in return for lending Nicaragua $1.5 billion? • Contrast- Roosevelt used a show of military power to accomplish his foreign policy goals. What was the main tool used by Taft? • Compare – In what way was President Wilson like President Roosevelt? • Identify Cause and Effect – What was the cause of the Mexican Revolution?
U.S. Policy Toward Latin America • Identify – Name four things in which America business leaders invested in Mexico? • Draw Conclusions- Why did Wilson order the navy to seize Veracruz? • Elaborate – What are some possible results of 120,000 Mexicans fleeing violence and immigrating to the U.S.?