Q1 - Writing Learning Goals • Write complete and effective sentences. • Indent, punctuate, and capitalize paragraphs properly. • Use topic sentences.
Lesson Objectives • By Friday, recognize fragments, run-on sentences, and comma splices, so you can avoid them when you write. • QUIZ ON FRIDAY
NOUNS PERSON PLACE THING IDEA • http://youtu.be/Sy72OPgdVuA
PRONOUNS • A WORD USED IN PLACE OF A NOUN • I, YOU,SHE, HE, IT • WE, YOU, THEY • http://youtu.be/koZFca8AkT0
VERBS Words that describe action.
1- ACTION VERBS • SHOWS ACTION
2- LINKING VERBS • LINKS SUBJECT TO NOUN OR AN ADJECTIVE IN THE PREDICATE PART OF THE SENTENCE • IS, ARE, WAS ,WERE,AM, BEEN • SMELL, LOOK, TASTE, REMAIN, FEEL, APPEAR, SOUND, SEEM, BECOME, GROW, STAND, TURN • http://youtu.be/7MfeH0ZXEVs
ADJECTIVES • DESCRIBES A NOUN OR PRONOUN BEAUTIFUL sunset
ADVERBS • DESCRIBES VERB, ADJECTIVE, ANOTHER ADVERB • http://youtu.be/lbgZfQNBFS0 SHINING BRIGHTLY
PREPOSITIONS RELATES A NOUN OR PRONOUN TO ANOTHER WORD IN THE SENTENCE IN FRONT OF the cow http://youtu.be/ITXrRHBA5OM
INTERJECTIONS WORD OR PHRASE USED TO EXPRESS STRONG EMOTION OR SURPRISE YIKES! http://youtu.be/GUqrljf1Nis
CONJUNCTIONS WATER AND ROCKS • CONNECTS WORDS OR INDIVIDUAL GROUPS OF WORDS • AND, BUT, OR, NOR,FOR, SO, YET • EITHER, OR, NEITHER, NOR, • http://youtu.be/eZqI5b5wGA4
SENTENCE • A sentence is a group of words that forms a complete thought.
Basic Parts of a SentenceIn other words: • Subject • Predicate • Expresses a complete thought
Basic Parts of a Sentence • a complete subject (which tells who or what is doing something) • a complete predicate (which tells what the subject is doing).
Basic Parts of a Sentence - 502 • subject - who or what is doing something • The subject is the part that is doing something or about which something is being said. • Predicate - what the subject is doing • The predicate • is the part that says something about the subject. • http://youtu.be/fdUXxdmhIsw
Subjects and Predicates • simple subject – consists of the subject without the words that modify it. • Every subject is built around one noun or pronoun (or more) that, when stripped of all the words that modify it, is known as the simple subject. Consider the following example: • A piece of pepperoni pizza would satisfy his hunger. • The subject is built around the noun "piece," with the other words of the subject -- "a" and "of pepperoni pizza" -- modifying the noun. "Piece" is the simple subject.
Subjects and Predicates • Complete Subject – made up of the simple subject plus its modifiers make the complete subject. • Complete Subject: • The large, umbrella-shaped parachute saved the life of the inexperienced pilot. • (The complete subject is the simple subject—“parachute”—plus all its modifiers.)
Subjects and Predicates • Complete Predicate – made up of the simple predicate plus its modifiers. • The large, umbrella-shaped parachute saved the life of the inexperienced pilot. • (The complete predicate is the simple predicate—“saved”—plus all its modifiers.)
Subjects and Predicates • A simple predicate - the verb without the words that modify it or complete the thought. • The glacier melted. • The glacier has been melting. • The glacier melted, broke apart, and slipped into the sea.
Subjects and Predicates • A compound subject - includes two or more subjects that share the same predicate (or predicates). • The craters and plains of the moon have had no human visitors for some time.
Subjects and Predicates • A compound predicate - includes two or more predicates that share the same subject (or subjects). • The glacier began to slip down the mountainside and eventually crushed some of the village's outlying buildings.
Clauses and Phrases • A phrase - a group of related words that does not contain a subject-predicate (verb) relationship, such as "in the morning" or "running down the street" or "having grown used to this harassment."
Clauses and Phrases • A clause - a group of related words containing a subject and a predicate (verb)
Clauses and Phrases • An Independent Clause - a group of related words containing a subject and a verb and form a complete thought. • Dependent Clauses a/k/a subordinate clauses – clauses that do NOT form a complete thought.
Fragments - 503 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p-SAc3QgIsU • Incomplete sentences are called fragments. • Fragments may be missing a subject, a predicate, or a complete thought.
Fragments Fragments are incomplete sentences. Usually, fragments are pieces of sentences that have become disconnected from the main clause. One of the easiest ways to correct them is to remove the period between the fragment and the main clause. Other kinds of punctuation may be needed for the newly combined sentence. Info. provided by the Purdue University Online Writing Lab
Fragments Purdue offers many majors in engineering. Such as electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering. Purdue offers many majors in engineering, such as electrical, chemical, and industrial engineering.
Fragments Coach Dietz exemplified this behavior by walking off the field in the middle of a game. Leaving her team at a time when we needed her. Coach Dietz exemplified this behavior by walking off the field in the middle of a game, leaving her team at a time when we needed her.
Fragments I need to find a new roommate. Because the one I have now isn't working out too well. I need to find a new roommate because the one I have now isn't working out too well.
Fragments The current city policy on housing is incomplete as it stands. Which is why we believe the proposed amendments should be passed. Because the current city policy on housing is incomplete as it stands, we believe the proposed ammendments should be passed.
Fragments You may have noticed that newspaper and magazine journalists often use a dependent clause as a separate sentence when it follows clearly from the preceding main clause, as in the last example above. This is a conventional journalistic practice, often used for emphasis. For academic writing and other more formal writing situations, however, you should avoid such journalistic fragment sentences.
Fragments You may have noticed that newspaper and magazine journalists often use a dependent clause as a separate sentence when it follows clearly from the preceding main clause, as in the last example above. This is a conventional journalistic practice, often used for emphasis. For academic(school) writing and other more formal writing situations, however, you should avoid such journalistic fragment sentences.
Fragments Some fragments are not clearly pieces of sentences that have been left unattached to the main clause; they are written as main clauses but lack a subject or main verb. http://depts.dyc.edu/learningcenter/owl/exercises/fragments_ex1.htm
Run-On Sentences - 504 • Run-On Sentences • A run-on sentence is a sentence with at least two independent clauses (complete thoughts) which are forced together instead of being properly connected.
Run-On Sentences - 504 • To correct these sentences, you have several options: • 1) Separate clauses using punctuation. • 2) Separate clauses using a conjunction. • 3) Rearrange the sentence (you may add or remove words).
Run-On Sentences - 504 • EXAMPLES • Run-on sentence: He put on some sunscreen, the sun was so extremely hot, and he wanted to go inside. • “He put on some sunscreen” 1st clause • “the sun was so extremely hot” 2nd clause • “he wanted to go inside” 3rd clause • Corrected sentence: He put on some sunscreen because the sun was extremely hot. He wanted to go inside.
Run-On Sentences - 504 • In other words, run-on sentences happen when two or more sentences are put together as one sentence. • Manta rays are similar to sharks they both have skeletons made of cartilage. • http://youtu.be/P6ARqUdCkdg • http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/cgi-shl/quiz.pl/run-ons_add1.htm • http://depts.dyc.edu/learningcenter/owl/exercises/run-ons_ex1.htm • http://www.writing.engr.psu.edu/exercises/index.html
Comma Splice • http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/comma-splice?page=all