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Boats

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  1. Boats Ordinary Requirement 6 Ordinary 6 - Boats

  2. Ordinary Requirement 6 • Know the identifying features and special advantages of ten of the following types of boats: • punt, skiff, dory, dinghy, pulling whaleboat, motor whaleboat, pram, kayak, canoe, catamaran, trimaran, runabout, motor cruiser, motor-sailer, motor-lifeboat, self-bailing surfboat. • Name the principal parts of the type of craft commonly used by your ship. • Know the proper display of boat flags and courtesy on small boats. • Demonstrate your ability to handle a rowboat. • References • “Boat Etiquette” p. 305 • “Larger Sailing Craft” on p. 266 • “Powerboats” on p.269 • Rowing Merit Badge Pamphlet, No. 33392 Ordinary 6 - Boats

  3. Punt • A punt is a flat-bottomed boat with square ends, typically used in small rivers and canals, propelled by pushing the river bed with a long pole. Ordinary 6 - Boats

  4. Skiff • A small clinker-built boat pulling one or two pairs of oars and used for small errands around a ship when she is in harbor. • clinker-built or clinch-built – a method of construction in which the lower edge of each side plank overlaps the upper edge of the one below it, also known as lap-strake • § Old English scip or skif Ordinary 6 - Boats

  5. Dory • A small, flat-bottomed, hard-chined* boat with flared sides, easily nested on the decks of fishing schooners • Chine – the angle where the bottom strakes of a boat meet the sides; in a hard-chined boat, the angle is very pronounced • § Miskito dóri Ordinary 6 - Boats

  6. Dinghy • A small, open, rowing boat pulled by one pair of oars, usually clinker-built and used as a general workboat or as a tender or a yacht. • Some dinghies are partially decked and are used for racing under sail • § Hindi dengi or dingi meaning small boat Ordinary 6 - Boats

  7. Pulling Whaleboat • A long narrow rowboat made with both ends sharp and raking, often steered with an oar, and formerly used by whalers for hunting whales • often carried by warships and merchant ships Ordinary 6 - Boats

  8. Motor Whaleboat • A powered, long, narrow boat with both ends sharp and highly raked. Ordinary 6 - Boats

  9. Pram • A small lightweight nearly flat-bottomed boat with a broad transom and usually squared-off bow • § Middle Dutch praem & Middle Low German prAm Ordinary 6 - Boats

  10. Kayak • A portable boat styled like an Eskimo canoe originally made of a wood or bone frame covered with skins except for a small opening in the center and propelled by a double-bladed paddle • Modern kayaks are made of wood, fiberglass or plastic. • § Inuit qayaq Ordinary 6 - Boats

  11. Canoe • A light narrow boat with both ends sharp that is usually propelled by single blade paddles • § Latin canoa Ordinary 6 - Boats

  12. Catamaran • A boat (as a sailboat) with twin hulls and usually a deck or superstructure connecting the hulls • § Tamil kattumaram, from kattu to tie + maram tree Ordinary 6 - Boats

  13. Trimaran • A fast pleasure sailboat with three hulls side by side Ordinary 6 - Boats

  14. Runabout • A light open motorboat Ordinary 6 - Boats

  15. Motor Cruiser • A powerboat with facilities (as a cabin and plumbing) necessary for living aboard -- called also cabin cruiser • § Dutch kruisen to make a cross, cruise Ordinary 6 - Boats

  16. Motor Sailer • A sailboat with motor and facilities (as a cabin and plumbing) necessary for living aboard -- called also sailing cruiser Ordinary 6 - Boats

  17. Motor-Lifeboat • A self-righting, powered lifeboat, used by the Coast Guard for rescues in heavy seas. • hull design and buoyancy give the boat its self-righting capability Ordinary 6 - Boats

  18. Self-bailing Surfboat • A lifeboat usually of the whaleboat design, with air chambers and scuppers for self-bailing, designed to be launched by the crew directly into the surf Ordinary 6 - Boats

  19. Hull – the basic boat minus rigging.  The hull comprises the bottom, topsides, and deck Keel – a weighted fin at the bottom of the hull, which keeps the boat from slipping sideways in the water and allows it to sail upwind. Centerboard – a wooden or metal fin that can be lowered to overcome the boat's lateral motion. Beam – the maximum width of the hull. Deck – the horizontal upper surface of the boat. Topsides – the sides of the hull above the waterline. Draft – The vertical distance, or depth, measured from the waterline to the lowest point of the boat Helm – A boat's steering apparatus; also a measure of balance between hull and sails indicated by steering effort Rudder – the fin at the stern of the boat used for steering. Tiller – a wooden or metal steering arm attached to the rudder.  Wheel – on large boats the wheel replaces the tiller and is used to turn the rudder. Lifelines – plastic-coated wires enclosing the deck suspended from metal supports, called pulpits and stanchions. Basic Boat Terms Ordinary 6 - Boats

  20. Parts of a sailboat • Sails • Mainsail & Jib or Genoa • Standing Rigging • Upper & Lower Shrouds • Forestay & Backstay • Spars • Mast & Boom • Spreaders & Strut • Hull Parts • Tiller & Rudder • Keel & Centerboard Ordinary 6 - Boats

  21. Bow – the front of the boat. Stern – the back of the boat. Forward – toward the bow. Aft – towards the stern. Port – The left side of the boat when you're facing forward To Port – To the left Port Tack – when the wind blows over the port side of the boat and the boom is on the starboard side Starboard – The right side of the boat when you're facing forward To Starboard – To the right Starboard Tack – When the wind blows over the starboard side of the boat and the boom is on the port side Aloft – overhead Knot – A measure of wind or boat speed: one nautical mile (6060.2 feet) per hour True wind – The wind strength or direction felt when the boat is stationary Apparent wind – The result of wind direction modified by the boat's forward movement Leeward – The side of the boat that the boom is on. Also, away from the wind or down-wind Windward – The side of the boat opposite the side the boom is on; also, toward the wind or upwind (a "windward" boat is toward the wind from the "leeward" boat Basic Sailing Terms Ordinary 6 - Boats

  22. Beam Reach – The point of sail at which the boat is sailing at a 90-degree angle to the wind Broad Reach – The point of sail at which the boat is sailing away from the wind but not straight downwind Close-Hauled (or Beating) – The point of sail at which the boat is sailing as close to the wind as possible Close Reach – The point of sail at which the boat is sailing toward the wind but not close-hauled Course-The direction you are sailing according to compass or wind angle Head-to-Wind – The point at which the boat is aimed straight into the wind with the sails luffing In "Irons" – Stuck head-to-wind with sails luffing and no steerage In the Lee – To leeward of a wind-blocking object, as "in the lee" of the island (for a protected anchorage) Head up – To alter course toward the wind Bear Off – To alter course away from the wind Ease – Let out, as in "ease the sheets“ Trim – Pull in, as in "trim the sails“ keel.“ Heel – The angle at which a boat leans over when sailing Luffing – Sails flogging in the wind Run – The point of sail at which the wind is directly behind the boat Tacking – Turning the bow of the boat through the wind with the sails changing the side they fill on Gybing – Turning the stern of the boat through the wind with the sails changing the side they fill on Hiking Out – leaning the weight of the crew over the windward side to help keep the boat on an "even General Sailing Terms Ordinary 6 - Boats

  23. Flying Flags - United States Ensign • All boats, when at anchor, fly it from the stern staff, if so equipped, only while occupied. • It is flown from the stern staff of powerboats underway on inland waters. • If the powerboat has a mast and gaff, the proper display is at the gaff. • On a sportsfisherman, where a stern staff would be in the way of the action, the practice is to fly the ensign from a halyard rigged just behind the tuna tower. Ordinary 6 - Boats

  24. Displaying the National Ensign • On Marconi-rigged sailboats under sail alone, the ensign is flown from the leech of the aftermost sail, approximately 2/3 the length of the leech above the clew. • In the same position it would occupy if the boat were gaff-rigged, and on gaff-rigged sailboats it is proper to fly the ensign from the peak of the aftermost gaff. • The modern high-aspect-ratio rig, with the boom end well inboard of the stern, has made it is possible to fly the ensign from the stern staff of a sailboat underway. • Under power alone, or at anchor or made fast, the ensign should be flown from the stern staff of all sailboats. • However, the ensign should never be displayed while the boat is racing. Ordinary 6 - Boats

  25. Association Flags • Flag's of associations, e.g., Sea Scouts, a cruising club or a USPS district, are generally rectangular and may be worn on a spreader halyard. • Many flags or signals are flown from the spreader halyards but—usually—only one should be worn on each halyard. • If your boat is rigged with one starboard halyard and one port halyard, fly the signal of superior dignity on the starboard side and the signal of lesser dignity on the port side. • If you have more than one halyard on each side of your boat, fly the superior signal form the outboard starboard halyard, with other signals to its left, in order of decreasing dignity. • They may be balanced, insofar as possible, starboard and port. Ordinary 6 - Boats

  26. Foreign Guest Flags • When a foreign guest is aboard, you may display the ensign of the guest's country from the bow staff or outboard port spreader. • Should more than one such guest flag be appropriate, wear them on spreader halyards from port to starboard in the alphabetical order of their countries' names in the English language. Ordinary 6 - Boats

  27. Size of Flags • The national ensign flown at a flag staff at the stern of your boat should be one inch on the fly for each foot of overall length of the boat. • All other flags such as club burgees, officer flags, and private signals for use on sailboats should be approximately 1/2 inch on the fly for each foot above the waterline of the tallest mast on the boat. • That is, if the top of the mast is 30 feet above the waterline, these other flags should be 15 inches on the fly.) • On powerboats, these flags should be 5/8 inch on the fly for each foot of overall length. The shape and proportions of pennants and burgees will be prescribed by the organization to which they relate. Ordinary 6 - Boats

  28. Alternative Display Locations • Avoid flying more than one ensign from a single halyard or antenna. • When the preferred positions for an organizational burgee or officer flag are not available, you may fly these from the spreader halyard, with more than one on a hoist if necessary. • In such instances however, you must observe the proper order of precedence. • If you must multiple-hoist these flags, no more than one flag of the same type or stature may be flown from the same halyard. • Each flag must be senior to the one below it, except that the officer-in-charge pennant may be placed above the officer flag when it is appropriate to do so. • When neither the preferred location nor a spreader halyard is available, a radio antenna may be used. • Never fly any other flag on the same halyard as, or on a halyard to starboard of, a courtesy flag Ordinary 6 - Boats

  29. Making Colors • Colors are made each morning at 0800; • At yacht club and similar organization docks or anchorages, this may be signaled by a morning gun. • The national ensign or yacht ensign is hoisted at the stern (or set in place on its staff). • This is followed, as applicable, by a foreign ensign (courtesy flag), a club or squadron burgee, organizational flags, an officer flag or private signal and then by any other signals not already flying, such as a guest flag. • At sunset, colors not properly flown on a day-and-night basis should be retired in reverse sequence, the ensign at the stern always being the last to be secured. • If you fly the yacht ensign (or other authorized ensign) in lieu of the U.S. ensign, raise and lower it as if it were the U.S. national ensign. Ordinary 6 - Boats