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RTI: The Central Role of Instruction in NCLB and IDEA

RTI: The Central Role of Instruction in NCLB and IDEA

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RTI: The Central Role of Instruction in NCLB and IDEA

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  1. RTI: The Central Role of Instruction in NCLB and IDEA Joseph Witt, PhD

  2. NCLB and IDEA are Merging • Foundation is good practices in general education • Eligibility determination in special education cannot be based on a lack of appropriate instruction in general education • Comes Together in • 3 Tiered Model

  3. Responsiveness to Intervention Model Level IV Special Education IEP Determination HIGH Level III Intensive Interventions Level II Selected Interventions Intensity of Treatment Level I Universal Interventions LOW Degree of Unresponsiveness to Intervention HIGH

  4. Kalisha: New Way and Old Way Current Grade Placement=5th Current Reading Level=3rd

  5. A Discrepancy Does Exist but Why? The Discrepancy between Actual and Expected

  6. Two Approaches • Assume problem resides within child and search for problem • Learning Disability • Assume FIRST problem is with instruction • every child can learn given the right strategies

  7. Current System • Kalisha is Referred • Tested • Woodcocked • WISC—ered • Voila • Severe Discrepancy • Diagnosis: LD • Placement in Special Education

  8. Discrepancy Explained:Kalisha has LD! • Kalisha goes off to Special Education • The Classroom Teacher Returns to Normal Routines • School Based Team is Happy • Somethinghas been done about Kalisha Why Consider a Change in IDEA to RTI

  9. Why Change • Disability designation and hall passes • LD placements up in US astronomically • Increase not a problem IF Students do Well in SPED • Outcomes for SPED Students Poor

  10. Could All Those New Placements Really be LD? • Is there a new LD epidemic • If not, what could explain the large increases in LD placement?

  11. LD Epidemic Mystery Solved • Scientists have Discovered that often the student has merely not been instructed --ABT • Was teacher “highly qualified” • Did reading instruction include “essential components of reading” • Was reading instruction “evidenced based” • Did instruction occur consistently Duh~

  12. Now with NCLB: Onus on District to Show Progress-Not Blame Student Why is Student Low • Are progress data available showing most students are successful? • Are all subgroups successful? • If not how can you say any one child is LD • They have not had a chance to learn.

  13. How Do you KNOW • Core instruction is working within RTI • Which students need help • STEEP Example

  14. RTI: Lots of “Moving” Parts • Screen ALL Students • Begin Intervention for Some • Monitor Progress • Make Changes if Needed • Schools Need Tech Assistance • Who will do these new Jobs • How do you do them

  15. Universal Screening—Sounds Like Too Much Work • STEEP • Reading—One Minute Individual Screening • Math—Group Screening • Can’t Do or Won’t Do • Most Schools Can Be Screened in a Day • Results returned to teachers that day

  16. How Does it Work? • First, All Children in the school are screened in reading and math • Using BRIEF classroom based tests—CBM • Next, Can’t Do/Won’t Do Assessment • Is problem skill or motivation

  17. Manystudentsin the red zone. The team should consider group or classwide interventions rather than referring one student at a time. Core Curriculum Problems

  18. Won’t Do Problem Lack of Motivation is NOT a Disability

  19. Can’t Do Problem Needs Instructional Intervention

  20. How Does All that Help

  21. “Filters” Increase Accuracy of Referrals Many Children Are Screened Few Individual Concerns Fewer Non-responders Even Less Require Full Evaluation

  22. Positive Outcomes • Biloxi, MS • Referrals in two schools from 1999-2003 • 40 Total Per Year • Referrals 2004-2005 • 1 Total • Why? School Psycs and Speech Paths with Graphs—modeling interventions • Vail Arizona • Multiple Baseline Across Schools • 30-50% Reduction in Referrals • Why? Focus on Core Curriculum—TEACHERS!!

  23. Determining Lack of Instruction: Many students not Learning at Tier 1 Grade Level Standard The Sore Thumb Test Kalisha in Red Seems to be a Problem

  24. Progress Monitoring in General ED a MUST • Inquiring minds want to know, how did Kalisha get behind in the first place • Did this happen gradually? • Why wasn’t something done sooner Asleep at the Wheel?

  25. Progress for Subgroups? Why Place Hispanic Students—Core not Working

  26. Let me See Reading Will this be known in future?

  27. What Should you Do if Core Curriculum is a Problem • Options • Classwide Intervention • Large Group • Most students will respond

  28. STEEP Screening Identified School Wide Math Deficits in Arizona School Green Zone Yellow Zone Red Zone Each bar is a student’s performance Math problems grades 3-5

  29. After School WideIntervention--No Systemic Problem Fourth Grade

  30. Importantly: Significant Improvements in SAT-9 Data

  31. How are these alike? • Overidentification • Disproportionality Linked to Academic Progress or Lack Thereof

  32. What if Kalisha’s Class is OK but She is Struggling? Core instruction is OK. Grade Level Standard Kalisha Sticks out Like a Sore Thumb Core curriculum working for most but not her

  33. Tier 2 For KalishaResponse to Intervention Before Intervention During Intervention #Correct Avg. for his Class Each Dot is one Day of Intervention Intervention Sessions Intervention in Reading

  34. No Response to intervention Before Intervention During Intervention #Correct Avg. for his Class

  35. Goals of Tier 2 Intervention • To reduce the gap • To rule out ABT • Can’t be done with Woodcock or any other test. • Testing can’t know she wasn’t taught effectively!!! • The only way to determine if student can learn normally is to teach and look at student’s response

  36. Kalisha using RTI via NCLB and IDEA • Evidenced based core to prevent failure • Universal screening to detect Kalisha when she is slightly behind • Evidenced based Supplemental Instruction • Intensive Individual Intervention • New way: 95% Chance No SPED Needed • Old way: 90% Chance SPED Needed Kalisha Needs the Juice: I-N-S-T-R-U-C-T-I-O-N

  37. Challenges Exist • Research Base is Lacking in Some Areas • New Jobs Require • Existing people learning new Jobs • New RTI Specialists • Interventionists • Job Integrated Training • The big big challenge…Implementation Fidelity

  38. Here’s the Friction • Currently Team • Develops Gut Feeling About the problem • Then Self Report cycle for teacher • How do you know child needs help. • How do you know intervention was done • How do you know intervention did not work • Ok lets test • Because that is ONLY real option • Now Lets place • Nobody has to do much • Old way easy and routine. • RTI—Lots of Moving Part

  39. Daunting Facts • Yesseldyke Studies • The Big Green Arrow • If intervention fidelity is this low • Teacher delivered intervention impossible

  40. Changes May be Needed • Current Practice • Every child has collaboratively developed individual intervention • Problems • Not evidenced based • No one is an expert • Materials must be assembled • New Way • Tiny Number of Evidenced Based Interventions • Materials Readied—Pre-training • Use them when needed

  41. Due Process and Fidelity • Old Way • We did the intervention now lets place • New Way—Results tell us: • Can child learn at normal rate? • Rule out ABT • What intensity of services are needed? • Intervention now serves an assessment purpose. Validity data needed.

  42. Common Questions • How much improvement is “enough” • What “counts” as intervention • How long, what intensity • What if intervention not used • Due Process Requirements • Completely Untested

  43. Wait to fail Test her using Block design Woodcock her Compare to National Norms Place Screen early-help early Compare to local norms Intervene Use intervention response to determine child needs Kalisha OLD WAY NEW WAY

  44. Thank You Contact: Joewitt@Joewitt.org Web: www.joewitt.org