Key Points • Classical Conditioning- Learn to associate one stimulus with another • Stimulus- Something that produces a reaction • Response- a Reaction to a Stimulus • Unconditioned Stimulus- A stimulus that causes a response that is automatic, not learned • Conditioned Response- Learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral or meaningless • Conditioned Stimulus- Learned Stimulus
Operant Conditioning • Operant Conditioning- Learn to do and not do things based on the results of those actions. • Reinforcement- Process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again. • Primary Reinforcers- Function due to the biological makeup of the organism (i.e. food, water, warmth) • Secondary Reinforcers- Acquire value through being paired with established reinforcers (i.e. money to buy food)
Positive vs. Negative Reinforcers • Positive Reinforcers- Increase the frequency of the behavior they follow • Negative Reinforcers- Increase the frequency of the behavior they follow will be removed. Unpleasant • What is an example of a Positive Reinforcer? • What is an example of a Negative Reinforcer?
Rewards and Punishments • Rewards- Increase the frequency of a behavior just like Positive Reinforcement. These terms can be used interchangeably. • Punishments- Unwanted events that decrease the frequency of the behavior they follow when applied. • *Negative Reinforcement increases a behavior by being removed! • *Punishment wants to decrease a behavior they follow when applied.
Couple Items to add from Last Class • Extinction- Occurs because the events that had previously followed a stimulus no longer occur. • Shaping- A way of teaching complex behaviors in which one first reinforces small steps in the right direction. • Been used to teach animals complex tasks • We use shaping everyday without knowing it
Latent Learning • Latent Learning- Learning that remains hidden until it is needed • What are some examples of Latent Learning that you can think of? • A child observes others using proper manners but does not demonstrate that knowledge until prompted to use the manners. • A parrot is trained to talk but does not do so until offered treats as a reward. • A college freshman is taught study skills, but does not study until failing several exams. Upon using the skills taught to him, he is successful on exams.
Observational Learning • Observational Learning- Acquire knowledge and skills by observing and imitating others • What are some examples of Observational Learning? • A child learns to walk • After witnessing an older sibling being punished for taking a cookie without asking, the younger child does not take cookies without permission • A young girl watches a basketball game, then shoots hoops without being explicitly taught how to do so
Three Kinds of Memory • Memory- the process by which we recollect prior experiences and information and skills learned in the past • 1. Episodic Memory • 2. Generic Memory • 3. Procedural Memory
Episodic Memory • Episodic Memory- memory of a specific event. Event took lace in the person’s presence, or the person experienced the event. • Flashbulb memory- We recall events in great detail • The more meaningful an event the better we remember it. And the more positive. • Can you think of something a couple years ago very distinctly? • But also very important events, like 9/11, JFK assassination, etc.
Generic Memory • Generic Memory- General Knowledge that people remember. • Facts, like who was the first president of the U.S.? Or your ABCs. • Can’t remember when we first learned it but we just know it.
Procedural Memory • Procedural Memory- Consists of the skills, or procedures, you have learned. • Ex. Throwing a ball, riding a bike, or swimming. • Once learned it sticks with you for a very long time even if you don’t use the skill. Known as “Muscle Memory”.
Encode • Encoding- the translation of information into a form in which it can be stored. • First stage of processing information. Just like when you input information into a computer. • Initially receive information through physical form through our senses. • Now we’re going to find out what type of learner you are, please write the following letters on a sheet of paper, look at it for 30 seconds, and then put the paper away somewhere: • OTTFFSSENT
Storage • Storage- the second process of memory, is the maintenance of encoded information over a period of time. • Strategies of Storage: • Maintenance Rehearsal • Elaborative Rehearsal • Retrieval
Maintenance Rehearsal • Maintenance Rehearsal- Repeating information over and over again to keep from forgetting • Does not make information meaningful and therefore is a bad way to put information in permanent storage
Elaborative Rehearsal • Elaborative Rehearsal- Make information meaningful by relating it to information already well known. • Widely used in education because it is a very effective way to put it into your long-term memory.
Retrieval • Retrieval- Third memory process. Consists of locating stored information and returning it to conscious thought • Some info like our names, birthday, hair color, we don’t have to think about to retrieve. • But other information is more difficult to remember and we have to use different methods to retrieve the memory. • Context-Dependent Memory • State-Dependent Memory
Three Stages of Memory • There are three stages of memory: • Sensory Memory • Short-Term Memory • Long-Term Memory
Sensory Memory • Sensory Memory- first stage of memory, consists of the immediate, initial recording of information that enters though our senses. • This memory lasts for only for a fraction of a second. But our visual memory also registers what our senses took in through stimuli called icons. • Iconic Memory- like snapshots, they are accurate photographic memories, but are extremely brief • Eidetic Imagery- Ability to remember visual stimuli over long periods of time. What we refer to as Photographic Memory.
Sensory Memory Cont. • Mental traces of sounds that are held in our sensory register are called echoes • Echoic Memory- Echoes can last for several seconds unlike iconic memory. This means sounds are much easier to remember than visuals.
Short-Term Memory • Short-Term Memory- second stage of memory. Memory that holds information briefly before it is stored or forgotten. This is also called working memory • Examples: Remembering a person’s name when told to you, or a phone number • Only through repetition and rehearsal can you store the information in your long-term memory
The Primacy and Recency Effects • Look at these numbers! • 437, 892, 091, 764, 345, 129, 981,852, 963, 741 • What were the numbers? Can you remember the first numbers better? • This is called the: • Primacy Effect- Tendency to recall the initial items in a series of items • Can you remember the last numbers better? • This is called the: • Recency Effect- Tendency to recall the last items in a series
Chunking and Interference • Chunking- the organization of items into familiar or manageable units. • Remember our letters from last class: OTTFFSSENT • If you try to remember them as chunks: OTT FFS SENT You will remember them better! • Everyone remember these letters: ZBT, TRQ • Ok now everyone remember: RTE, VFR • Now count back from 142 by threes • What were the letters? • RTE, VFR, ASW • Interference- occurs when new information appears in short-term memory and takes the place of what is already there. • Short-Term memory is very useful but its only a temporary solution for remembering stuff!
Long-Term Memory • Long-Term Memory- Third and final stage of memory information. Capable of large and relatively permanent storage. • We know this information is not recorded though like a video. It is reconstructed from bits and pieces of our experience. We shape them according to the personal and individual ways in which we view the world.
Schemas • Schemas- These mental representations that we use to form the world by organizing bits of information into knowledge. • Now flip back to the first page of our notes. Try and draw what you wrote down. • Do your drawings look like the original or do they look like the other drawings because you used your schema to remember the experience of me showing you the drawings? First Group Original Second Group Eyeglasses Eyeglasses Dumbbell Hourglass Hourglass Table
Forgetting • Forgetting can occur at any of the three stages of memory, which were…. • Sensory- Decays in seconds • Short-Term- Disappears in 10-12 seconds unless put into long-term • Long-Term- Can disappear after a long time, or can be mixed and interfered with old and new learning.
Basic Memory Tasks • Basic Memory tasks are used to help maintain memory and keep us from forgetting information. • The three tasks are: • Recognition • Recall • Relearning
Recognition • Recognition- involves identifying objects or events that have been encountered before • Ex. Multiple Choice Tests, viewed as easiest kind of test. You just have to recognize the right answer you do not have to come up with the answer on your own.
Recall and Relearning • Recall- means to bring it back to mind. Trying to reconstruct something in your mind. • Relearning- learning material a second time, usually in less time than it was originally learned.
Different Kinds of Forgetting • Interference- Occurs when new information shoves aside or disrupts what has been in memory • Decay- the fading away of a memory • Repression- Forgetting something by pushing the idea out of your consciousness. Wanting to forget something • Amnesia- Severe memory loss caused by brain injury, shock, fatigue, illness, or repression
More specific kinds of Amnesia • Infantile Amnesia- the inability to remember events that occurred during one’s early years (before age three) • The reason for infantile amnesia is due to the underdeveloped brain of infants • Anterograde Amnesia- Memory loss from trauma that prevents a person from forming new memories • Ex. Trauma from a blow to the head, electric shock, or brain surgery • Retrograde Amnesia- forget the period leading up to a traumatic event, but also could be for years • Ex. Those injured in auto accidents don’t remember that they were in the car before the accident https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hNPv247yyas
Thinking • Thinking- the mental activity that is involved in the understanding, processing, and communicating of information. • How is this accomplished? • - Symbols • -Concepts • -Prototypes
What did we discuss last class? • What did we discuss last class about Thinking? • Symbols- an object or an act that stands for something else • Concept- a mental structure used to categorized objects, people, or events that share similar characteristics • Prototype- an example of a concept that best exemplifies that concept. • What Problem Solving skills did we discuss last class? • Algorithm- a specific procedure that when used properly and in the right circumstances, will always lead o the solution of a problem • Heuristics- rules of thumb that often, but not always, help us find the solution to a problem
Trial and Error (Heuristic) • Trying different things and see what happens with each one until we arrive at our goal by chance. • Example: Going through a maze • Have you ever used trial and error?
Analogies • Analogy- a likeness that exists between two or more things that are in other ways unlike • Coat is to closet as car is to ______________ • When you solve one problem, you will use the same approach in solving another problem is it is similar.
Functional Fixedness • Another obstacle to problem solving is functional fixedness. • Functional Fixedness- the tendency to think of an object as being useful only for the function that the object is usually used for.
Problem Solving and Creative Thinking • Functional Fixedness can usually be overcome by creativity. The ability to come up with new or unusual ways of solving problems. • Creativity requires divergent thinking rather than convergent thinking. • Convergent Thinking- Trying to narrow one’s thinking to find the single best solution • Divergent Thinking- attempts to generate multiple solutions to a problem
Reasoning • Reasoning- The use of information to reach conclusions • Two main types of reasoning: • Deductive Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Reasoning • Deductive Reasoning- the conclusion is true if the premises are true • Premise- an idea or statement that provides the basic information that allows us to draw conclusions • Example: • 1. South Korea is in Asia - Premise • 2. The City of Seoul is in South Korea - Premise • 3. Therefore, Seoul is in Asia – Conclusion that is deduced
Inductive Reasoning • Inductive Reasoning- Reason from individual cases or particular facts to reach a general conclusion. • The conclusions can sometimes be WRONG, even when the premises are RIGHT • For Example: • 1. Canada and the United States are near each other, and they have similar languages - Premise • 2. Spain and Portugal are near each other, and they have similar languages- Premise • 3. Therefore, countries that are near each other have similar languages- Conclusion
Confirmation Bias • It’s often impossible to prove an assumption reached by inductive reasoning to be true. • We can only prove it false, People fail to realize this . • Then confirmation bias occurs. • Confirmation Bias- tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one’s preexisting beliefs or hypotheses.
The Representativeness Heuristic • If I give you a True/False quiz, which answer sequence do you think would most likely appear on the quiz? • 1. T TTTTT • 2. F FF T TT • 3. T F F T F T • Most likely it would be number 3 because it looks the most random and is representative of what a test usually looks like. • Representativeness- The process of making decisions about a sample according to the population that the sample appears to represent
The Availability Heuristic • Availability- Making decisions on the basis of information that is available to them in their immediate consciousness • For Example: do you think the United States is more violent today than 20 years ago? • Why? • Well violent crime has fallen a lot in the last 20 years, but many people think its actually higher because of how much more the news covers everything.
The Anchoring Heuristic • Anchoring- making decisions based on certain ideas or standards they hold • Beliefs about politics, religion, and ways of life are common anchors • With these anchors we make judgements based on presumptions. • It is difficult for people to change from their presumptions. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q8NydsXl32s&t=20s
Framing Effect If cost was the same you would probably have gone with the Chunky brand soup can. Even though both have the same exact ingredients. This is called the Framing Effect. Framing Effect- the way in which wording affects decision making. Examples: Advertising – 75% fat free vs. 25% fat content Politics – Pro something vs. Anti something • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rKRvQFo_B4
What did we go over last class? • Language- The communication of ideas through symbols that are arranged according to rules of grammar. • Phonemes- The basic sounds of a language • Morphemes- the units of meaning in a language • Syntax- The way in which words are arranged to make phrases and sentences