Rocks: Mineral Mixtures • The Big Idea: Rock changes through the rock cycle and is classified by how it formed, by its composition, and by its texture. • SPI’ • 0707.7.2: Label a diagram that depicts the three different rock types • 0707.7.3: Identify the major processes that drive the rock cycle.
Rocks: Mineral Mixtures Preview Section 1 The Rock Cycle Section 2 Igneous Rock Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Concept Mapping
Section 1The Rock Cycle Bellringer # 3 List eight ways to determine the identity of minerals. Open text to pg 360. Set up notes for 14.1
Section 1The Rock Cycle Objectives • Describetwo ways rocks have been used by humans. • Describefour processes that shape Earth’s features. • Describehow each type of rock changes into another type as it moves through the rock cycle. • Listtwo characteristics of rock that are used to help classify it.
Section 1The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle • A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals. • New rock forms from old rock material constantly.
rock cycle: series of processes in which a rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes.
Section 1The Rock Cycle Processes That Shape the Earth • Process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock:weathering. Sedimentary rock is made from fragments.
Section 1The Rock Cycle Processes That Shape the Earth, continued • erosion: wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another. • Deposition: Process in which sediment moved by erosion is dropped and comes to rest.
Section 1The Rock Cycle Processes That Shape the Earth, continued • Heat and Pressure Sedimentary rock can form when buried sediment is squeezed. • If temperature and pressure are high enough, rock can change into metamorphic rock. • If rock gets hot enough to melt, this creates magma that cools to form igneous rock.
Section 1The Rock Cycle Illustrating the Rock Cycle • The rock cycle is the continual process by which new rock forms from old rock material.
Section 1The Rock Cycle Rock Cycle Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept
Section 1The Rock Cycle Rock Classification • Rock are classified in one of three main classes based on how it formed: • Igneous rock • Sedimentary rock • Metamorphic rock
Section 1The Rock Cycle Types of Rock Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept
14.1 vocab • Rock cycle • Rock • Weathering • Erosion • Deposition
Section2 Igneous Rock Bellringer # 4 List the three types of rocks. Open text to pg 368. Set up notes for 14.2
Section2 Igneous Rock Objectives • Describe three ways that igneous rock forms. • Explainhow the cooling rate of magma affects the texture of igneous rock. • Distinguish between igneous rock that cools within the Earth’s crust and igneous rock that cools at the Earth’s surface.
Section2 Igneous Rock Origins of Igneous Rock • Igneous rock forms when hot, liquid rock, or magma, cools and solidifies. • ways magma can form: • When rock is heated • When pressure is released • When rock changes composition
Section2 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Formations • When magma intrudes, or pushes, into surrounding rock below Earth’s surface and cools it forms intrusive igneous rock.
Section2 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Formations, continued • Igneous rock that forms from magma that erupts, or extrudes, on the Earth’s surface is called extrusive igneous rock. • Extrusive igneous rock, commonly found around volcanoes, cools quickly on the surface and contains very small crystals or no crystals.
14.2 vocab • Intrusive • Extrusive • Igneous • Magma • Lava • Fissures
Section3 Sedimentary Rock Bellringer # 5 Differentiate between intrusive and extrusive igneous rock. Open text to pg372. Set up notes for 14.3
Section3 Sedimentary Rock Objectives • Describe the origin of sedimentary rock. • Describethe three main categories of sedimentary rock. • Describe three types of sedimentary structure.
Section3 Sedimentary Rock Origins of Sedimentary Rock • Wind, water, ice, sunlight, and gravity all cause rock to physically weather into fragments. • Through erosion, these rock and mineral fragments, called sediment, are moved from one place to another.
Section3 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock Cycle Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept
Section3 Sedimentary Rock Origins of Sedimentary Rock, continued • The sediment is deposited in layers, and eventually newer layers cover the older layers. • The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is its layers, or strata.
Section3 Sedimentary Rock Composition of Sedimentary Rock • Sedimentary rock is classified by the way it forms. • Many features indicate the way sedimentary rock is formed. The most important feature is stratification.
Section3 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock Structures • Stratification: process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers. • Strata differ from one another depending on the kind, size, and color of their sediment.
14.3 vocab • Strata • Stratification • Sedimentary rock • Sediment
Section4 Metamorphic Rock Bellringer # 6 What are the main categories of sedimentary rock? Open text to pg 372. Set up notes for 14.3.
Section4 Metamorphic Rock Objectives • Describe two ways a rock can undergo metamorphism. • Explainhow the mineral composition of rocks changes as the rocks undergo metamorphism. • Describe the difference between foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rock. • Explain how metamorphic rock structures are related to deformation.
Section4 Metamorphic Rock Origins of Metamorphic Rock • Metamorphic rocks: rocks in which the structure, texture, or composition have changed. • All three types of rock can be changed by heat, pressure, or a combination of both.
Section4 Metamorphic Rock Composition of Metamorphic Rock • As rocks undergo metamorphism, original minerals in a rock change into new minerals.
Section4 Metamorphic Rock Texture of Metamorphic Rock • All metamorphic rock has one of two textures. • Foliated • 2. Nonfoliated
Section4 Metamorphic Rock Texture of Metamorphic Rock, continued • Foliated Metamorphic Rock • Foliated: mineral grains are arranged in planes or band. • Metamorphic rocks can become other metamorphic rocks if the environment changes again.
Section4 Metamorphic Rock • Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock • Nonfoliated: mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands. • Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks are commonly made of one or only a few minerals. • During metamorphism, crystals of these minerals may change in size or the mineral may change in composition in a process called recrystallization.
14.4 vocab • Metamorphic rock • Foliated • Nonfoliated
Rocks: Mineral Mixtures Concept Mapping Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. sedimentary metamorphic clastic regional extrusive igneous rocks intrusive