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Christian Sacraments

Christian Sacraments

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Christian Sacraments

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  1. ChristianSacraments SCTR 19 – Religions of the Book Prepared by Sean Hind

  2. What is a Sacrament? • Definitions: • Latin: sacramentum; Greek: mysterion • Rites/rituals performed in/by the Church, to convey God’s “grace” to believers • Number of Sacraments? • Catholics & Orthodox Christians: seven • Most Protestants: only two (Bapt. & Euch.) • Aspects of each Sacrament: • Effects & Ministers • Biblical Basis • Central Words & Actions

  3. Types of Sacraments • Sacraments of Initiation: • Baptism • Confirmation • Eucharist • Sacraments of Healing: • Penance/Reconciliation • Anointing of the Sick • Sacraments of Vocation: • Marriage/Matrimony • Holy Orders

  4. Baptism • Effects: • Gk. baptizo = “dipped/immersed” in water. • Becoming a member of Christ’s Church. • Having one's sins forgiven. • Ministers: • Bishops • Priests • Deacons • Anyone!(in case of urgent need)

  5. Central Words & ActionsBaptism • Words: • "I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.” • Actions: • Full immersion in water,or pouring water over head • Sprinkling or dabbing? • Infants? or only Adults? • Other symbols: anointing;candles, white garment

  6. Biblical Basis: Baptism • Jesus’ Commands: • Matt 28:19 • Evangelists’ Theology: • John 3:22; 4:1-2 • Early Church Practice: • Acts 2:38-41; 10:47-48 • Etc.

  7. Eucharist • Effects: • Spiritually nourished by body & blood of Christ. • United "in communion" with Christ & community. • Gk. Eucharistia = “thanksgiving” prayer • Ministers: • Bishops • Priests

  8. Biblical Basis: Eucharist • Jesus’ Last Supper: • Mark 14:22-25 • Matt 26; Luke 22; 1 Cor 11 • Gospel Theology: • John 6:48-58 • Early Xn Practice: • Luke 24:35 • Acts 2:42; etc.

  9. Central Words & ActionsEucharist • Words: • Long prayer of “Thanksgiving” • Esp. the Words of Institution:“This is my body…”“This is my blood…” • Actions: • Bread and wine blessed by minister; received/shared by communicants.

  10. Confirmation • Effects: • Strengthened by the Holy Spirit. • “Confirmed” in the fullness of Christian faith. • Ministers: • Bishops • Priests (in some cases)

  11. Biblical Basis: Confirmation • Jesus: • John 20:22 • Apostles: • Acts 8:17; 19:6 • Acts 10:44-48

  12. Central Words & ActionsConfirmation • Words: • "(Name), be sealed with the Gift of the Holy Spirit.” • Actions: • Bishop lays his hands on the head of the confirmed

  13. Penance/Reconciliation • Effects: • Forgiven of one's sins • Reconciled to God • Reconciled to others • Ministers: • Bishops • Priests

  14. Biblical BasisPenance/Reconciliation • Jesus: Forgive! • John 20:23 • Matt 16:19; 18:18 • James: Confess! • James 5:16

  15. Central Words & ActionsPenance/Reconciliation • Words: • "I forgive you of all of your sins, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" • Actions: • confesses his sins • expresses contrition • proposes amendment

  16. Anointing of the Sick • Effects: • Being strengthened in time of illness. • United in prayer with the community. • Physically/psychologically healed? • Ministers: • Bishops • Priests

  17. Biblical BasisAnointing of the Sick • Disciples anoint the sick: • Mark 6:7-13 • Call elders to pray/anoint: • James 5:14-16

  18. Central Words & ActionsAnointing of the Sick • Words: • "Through this holy anointing may the Lord in his love and mercy help you with the grace of the Holy Spirit. May the Lord who frees you from sin save you and raise you up." • Actions: • Anointing sick person’s forehead &hands with blessed oil

  19. Matrimony/Marriage • Effects: • United in eyes of God & church. • Legally recognized as a couple. • Ministers: • The couple themselves! • Clergy are merely witnesses!

  20. Biblical BasisMatrimony/Marriage • God creates M & F: • Gen 2:24 • Jesus vs. Divorce: • Mark 10:2-12; Matt 19:1-9 • Paul on spousal unity: • Eph 5:22-33; 1Cor 7:10-16

  21. Central Words & ActionsMatrimony/Marriage • Words: • "I, (name), take you, (name), to be my husband/wife. I promise to be true to you…” • Actions: • Husband & wife publicly promise fidelity & love. • Optional: exchange of rings, lighting of candles, etc.

  22. Holy Orders • Effects: • Becoming "ordained" clergy, in leadership “orders”: • Bishops • Priests • Deacons • Ministers: • only Bishops

  23. Biblical BasisHoly Orders • Jesus chooses Apostles: • Mark 3:13-19; etc. • Laying on of Hands: • Acts 6:6 • 1 Tim 4:14; 5:22 • 2 Tim 1:6

  24. Central Words & ActionsHoly Orders • Words: • "Prayer of Consecration” • Actions: • Laying hands on ordinand’s head • Anointing hands with holy oil • Several other symbolic gestures

  25. Summary • Seven Sacraments (Cath.): • Baptism • Eucharist • Confirmation • Penance/Reconciliation • Anointing of the Sick • Matrimony/Marriage • Holy Orders • Two Sacraments (Prot.): • Baptism • Eucharist