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Chapter 5. Nutrition. What is Nutrition?. Process by which the body takes in and uses food Because not all food choices offer the same benefits, making healfthul food choices shows that you understand the impact of personal health behaviors on the body system. Importance of Good Nutrition.
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Chapter 5 Nutrition
What is Nutrition? • Process by which the body takes in and uses food • Because not all food choices offer the same benefits, making healfthul food choices shows that you understand the impact of personal health behaviors on the body system
Importance of Good Nutrition • Provides calories and nutrients your body needs for maximum energy and wellness • Calories: units of heat that measure the energy used by the body & the energy that food supplies to the body. • Nutrients: substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy.
What Influences Your Food Choices? • Hunger: natural physical drive that protects you from starvation • Appetite:desire, rather then a need for food • Emotions • Environment • Family, friends, peers • Cultural & ethnic background • Convenience & Cost • Advertising
Advertisting…. • Target Audience?? • Fast Food Commercial Link
Chapter 5 Lesson 2 • Nutrients • To survive the human body needs the nutrients found in food • 6 Groups • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Fats • Vitamins • Minerals • Water
Carbohydrates • Starches and sugars present in foods • 4 calories per gram • Uses energy to perform every task • Simple and Complex Carbohydrates • Simple: sugars; fructose and lactose • Complex: starches; whole grains, seeds, nuts, tubers (root vegetables: potatoes)
Role of Carbohydrates • Body converts carbs into glucose: a simple sugar that is the body’s main source of energy • Glucose stored in liver and muscles as a starch-like substance called glycogen • Take in too many carbs = stored as fat • Fiber: indigestible complex carb
Proteins • Nutrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues • Made up of long chains of substances called amino acids • Essential amino acids: 9/20 that you must get from food
Proteins • Complete and Incomplete Proteins • Complete: contain adequate amounts of all 9 esstential amino acids • Animal Products: fish, meat, eggs, milk, cheese, and yogurt • Incomplete: lack 1 or more essential amino acids • Beans, peas, nuts, and whole grains • Combination of 2 or more = complete protein
Role of Proteins • Body builds new cells and tissues from the amino acids in proteins • Replaces damaged or worn-out cells • Makes enzymes, hormones, and antibodies • 4 calories per gram
Fats • Some fat is necessary • Type of lipid: a fatty substance that does not dissolve in water • 9 calories per gram • Building blocks are fatty acids
Fats • Saturated Fatty Acids • Solid at room temperature • Animal fats and tropical oils • Increase of heart disease • Unsaturated Fatty Acids • Liquid at room temperature • Vegetable fats/oils • Reducing risk of heart disease
Role of Fats • Transport vitamins A, D, E, and K in blood • Add flavor and texture to food • Satisfy hunger longer • Foods high in fats = high in calories
Cholesterol • Waxy lipidlike substance that circulates in blood • Makes cell membranes, nerve tissue, produce hormones, Vitamin D, and bile (digests fats) • Excess deposits in arteries = increase of heart disease • Heredity, Age and Your Lifestyle
Vitamins, Minerals, Water • Vitamins: compounds that help regulate many vital body process, including digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrients….water and fat-soluable • Water Soluable– dissolve in water and pass into the blood stream during digestion EX: Vitamin C, Folic Acid • Fat Soluable— absorbed, stored and transported in fat Ex: A, B comlex, D, E, K
Vitamins, Minerals, Water • Minerals: substances that the body cannot manufacture but are needed for forming healthy bones, teeth, and regulate body processes • Ex: Iron & Calcium • Include electrolytes: chloride, potassium, sodium • Water: transports nutrients, carries waste from cells, absorb nutrients, etc.