MERS-CoV in KSA BashaerMohammedsaleh
What is it? • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. • Causes Respiratory failure • With small number of reported cases, info about transmission, severity, clinical impact. • Extraordinary large RNA virus. • A syndrome means it’s progressive.
Incidents • Starting June 2012 the 1st patient (Saudi) was identified with it. • 60 cases of deaths globally out of 138, 40 of which are Saudis or in SA. • Mortality 60%
Symptoms • Similar to any respiratory disease e.g. common flu: • Cough and/or sneezing • Fever • Shortness of breath • Headache • Diarrhea and/ or vomiting • Dizziness
MERS-CoV VS SARS • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, caused by SARS-CoV. • breakage in 2003, in China- Guangdong • 1st host are civets, then humans. • 778 deaths out of 8098 infected patients. • Same symptoms, same incubation period (~12d) • Later respiratory failure (5d later). • Treated with O2 supplement, corticosteroids, and ribavirin.
Less medical personnel infected. • Witnessed of person to person transmission, though with no clear evidence or basis. • Infected person seems with be personally close to patient. • Ribavirinand Interferon aren’t of much benefit. • Host camels (Oman, Canary Islands, and Egypt) and bats (Bisha, SA). • 24% of cases and nosocomial --of hospital origin.
Current treatment/ contamination • Isolate patients, patient-to-medical personnel infection. • Treatment of evident symptoms. • No cure/ vaccine. • Influenza and Pneumococcal vaccinations recommended for ME travelers.
prevention • Like all air-transmitted diseases:- the point is to keep sneezed or coughed water droplet min. in breathed air and, min. contact with those contaminated with them. • Washing hands properly with soap often. • Sneezing and coughing on a paper tissue and dispose it.
Government efforts with hajj season • Hygiene promoting brochures: wash hands, avoid direct sun exposure, don’t share personal items… • Over 337000 medical employee and volunteers in the season, present in pilgrimage site. • Medical care is free of charge. • Recommendations for those with higher risk of infection to post-pone it: pregnant ladies, children, elders >56y.
References: • WHO website: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/coronavirus_infections/en/ • Saudi Ministry of Health website: http://www.moh.gov.sa/en/Hajj/Pages/default.aspx • http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(13)70193-2/fulltext • http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/publications/rra_mers-cov_7th_update.pdf