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MINERALS PowerPoint Presentation

MINERALS

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MINERALS

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  1. MINERALS MAJOR AND TRACE MINERALS

  2. MINERALS

  3. FUNCTIONS • Components of enzymes  biochemical reactions • Bone, connective tissue formation • Blood formation, function • Metabolism of energy nutrients • Growth, reproduction • Nerve, muscle function • Membrane transport • Regulate body fluid balance

  4. PROPERTIES • Inorganic – no carbon • Carry positive or negative charge • May function together calcium + phosphorus + fluoride = bone • May act as individual elements • Macro minerals essential in amounts larger than 5 grams

  5. MINERALS IN BODY

  6. CALCIUM

  7. CHARACTERISTICS • Most abundant mineral in body • 99% in the bone • Gives structure • “Bank” or reserve • 1% in body fluids • Ionized calcium • Tightly controlled

  8. CALCIUM CONTROL • If blood calcium increases  bone • If blood calcium decreases  GI absorption increases Bone increases release Kidneys decrease excretion • Regulated by hormones and vitamin D: Parathyroid and thyroid glands Parathormone  increases blood calcium Calcitonin  inhibits calcium release from bone

  9. BLOOD CALCIUM TOO HIGH

  10. BLOOD CALCIUMTOO LOW

  11. FUNCTIONS • 99% in bone and teeth • Contraction, relaxation of muscles • Blood clotting • Transmission of nerve impulses • Secretion of hormones • Activation of enzymes • Blood pressure

  12. FUNCTION

  13. ABNORMALITIES • High blood calcium levels  calcium rigor • Low blood calcium levels  calcium tetany • Abnormalities  not dietary causes

  14. CALCIUM ABSORPTION • Increased need  growth, lactation, pregnancy Adults absorb ~30% Pregnant women ~50% Infants, children ~60% Growth hormone Calcium binding protein (CBP) in intestine  increased calcium absorption • Acid environment • Lactose – milk and milk products • Vitamin D

  15. BIOAVAILABILITY

  16. CALCIUM SOURCES

  17. COMPARISON

  18. ABSORPTION Decreased by: • Phytic acid oatmeal whole grains • Oxalic acid rhubarb spinach • Factors increasing excretion: excessive protein intake excessive phosphate (PO4) intake

  19. RECOMMENDATIONS • Daily intake needed • Adequate intakes established Varies according to age Same for adult male and female No increase for pregnancy or lactation • Tolerable upper intake limit established

  20. DEFICIENCY • Less than peak bone mass • Osteoporosis in adults • Rickets in children – bone malformation

  21. BONE MASS

  22. BONE MASS COMPARED

  23. OSTEOPOROSIS

  24. SPINE WITH OSTEOPOROSIS

  25. RISK FACTORS

  26. RICKETS

  27. SUPPLEMENTS • Calcium carbonate 40% (TUMS) • Calcium lactate  13% • Calcium gluconate  9% • Avoid bone meal, dolomite: Contaminated with heavy metals – unsafe • Aluminum and magnesium may increase calcium loss • Test for absorbability: 6 oz of vinegar, stir occasionally 75% dissolved in ½ hour

  28. PHOSPHORUS

  29. CHARACTERISTIC • 2ND Most abundant mineral in body

  30. FUNCTIONS • Bones and teeth – 85% of mineral Calcium + phosphorus  hydroxyapatite • Buffer – phosphoric acid • Growth – DNA, RNA • Energy metabolism activating enzymes and B vitamins part of ATP, ADP, AMP • Major part of some lipids - phospholipids • Transport of nutrients in and out of cells

  31. RECOMMENDATIONS • RDA – varies according to age and gender • Food sources: all animal flesh foods, processed foods, milk, milk products, soft drinks

  32. DEFICIENCY AND EXCESS • Deficiency is rare – bone demineralization May result from high antacid intake Preemies on human milk • Excess – may increase calcium excretion

  33. ELECTROLYTES SODIUM, CHLORIDE, AND POTASSIUM

  34. SODIUM, POTASSIUM, CHLORIDE • Electrolytes to regulate fluids • Sodium (Na+) – major + ion: extracellular • Potassium (K+) – major + ion: intracellular • Chloride (Cl-) – major – ion: extracellular

  35. SODIUM

  36. FUNCTIONS • Electrolyte – fluid balance • Nerve impulse transmission • Muscle contraction

  37. RECOMMENDATIONS • Adequate Intake • Minimum – 500mg (Commission on Dietary Allowances) • Upper Level – 2300 mg • 1 tsp salt = 2000 mg Na ~40% • Moderation: Diet and Health Guidelines: 6gm salt = 2400 mg Na • Average intake: Sodium = 4-6 gm/day Salt = 10-12 gm/day

  38. SODIUM SOURCES

  39. DEFICIENCY • Not usually a problem – abundant sources in food, freely absorbed • Vomiting, diarrhea • Kidney disease • Extremely heavy sweating • Blood loss, extensive burns • Restricted intake of protein, salt • Hyponatremia = fatigue, confusion, dizziness • Extreme cases  coma • Only replace water  water intoxication

  40. EXCESS • Na levels regulated by kidneys – immediate symptoms – edema and hypertension • May contribute to but not cause hypertension (HTN) • Genetic predisposition to HTN • “Water follows salt” Increase Na intake  increase blood volume  increased pressure on vascular system (Increased blood pressure)

  41. CONTROL HTN • Salt sensitive • Decrease sodium intake • Decrease weight when appropriate • Medication when necessary • Use salt substitute (KCl) only on advice of MD

  42. CHLORIDE

  43. CHARACTERISTICS • Ionic form of chlorine (poisonous) • Chlorine is added to public water to kill dangerous micro-organisms • Chloride is NOT poisonous – is required

  44. FUNCTIONS • Chief anion in ECF  regulates fluid balance • Part of HCl  acts on protein to begin digestion • Maintaining acid-base balance

  45. RECOMMENDATIONS • Adequate Intake • Upper Level 3600 mg • Minimum requirement – 750 mg/day • Sources – abundant in diet processed foods table salt (NaCl)

  46. DEFICIENCY • In sodium depleting conditions • As a result of human error Infant formulas Tube feedings • Used in sweat test for cystic fibrosis Increase Cl in sweat means positive tests for cystic fibrosis

  47. POTASSIUM

  48. FUNCTIONS • Main cation ICF for fluid balance • Facilitates reactions • Supports cell integrity • Nerve impulses • Contraction of muscles (**Heart)

  49. RECOMMENDATIONS • Adequate Intake – no upper level • Food sources – fresh foods K+ in every cell fruits, vegetables, legumes

  50. SOURCES