The Governments solution to create equality among all citizens Affirmative Action Picture from Whitehouse.org
What is Affirmative Action? • Affirmative action is designed to promote access to opportunities in education, employment, housing, and government contracts among certain designated groups, such as women and minorities” (ProQuest Staff, p.1) .
History of Affirmative Action • On March 6th, 1961 President John F. Kennedy signed an executive order to create an executive committee on equal opportunity employment. (Cooper 16) • President Johnson pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress. The bill banned discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin.” (Cooper 16) • By the mid 1960’s African Americans started to make headway in their case, this caused women to join that battle to become equal with men.
Pros of Implementation • Affirmative action helps promote minorities have an equal opportunity for employment and to further their education. • President Johnson explained, "You do not wipe away the scars of centuries by saying: 'Now, you are free to go where you want, do as you desire and choose the leaders you please.' You do not take a man who for years has been hobbled by chains, liberate him, bring him to the starting line of a race, saying, 'You are free to compete with all the others”(Cooper, 17) • Without affirmative action, the white male typically had a higher education then they were able to receive the higher paying jobs. This made a group of underprivileged who wanted to go to school to educate themselves but could not afford the tuition due to lower paying jobs, therefore making them unable to advance themselves to the higher paying careers causing a perpetuating cycle within communities.
Cons of Implementation • In trying to be compliant, schools have set quotas for number of students can be admitted based off of the aforementioned characteristics, rather than GPA . Restricting more qualified individuals. • Some believe that we are crippling minorities with affirmative action. Shelby Steel stated that, “Today's 'black' problem is underdevelopment, not discrimination. Success in modernity will demand profound cultural changes--changes in child-rearing, a restoration of marriage and family, a focus on academic rigor, a greater appreciation of entrepreneurialism and an embrace of individual development as the best road to group development .”(Pro Quest Staff, pg.1)
Works Cited Page ProQuest Staff. "At Issue: Affirmative Action." ProQuest LLC. 2013: n.pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 28 Mar 2013. Cooper, Mary Ann. "Affirmative Action Yesterday and Today." Hispanic Outlook Vol. 15, No. 8. Jan. 10 2005: 16-17. SIRS Issues Researcher.Web. 13 Apr 2013. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013, April 18) “Usual Weekly Earning of Wage and Salary Workers First Quarter 2013.” https://www.bls.gov/news.release.