Information today comes in wide variety of type, for example it could be: • Email message • A photograph or • Online transaction processing system
Organization have to know the type of data and how it will be used • Understanding of what its evolution and final destiny is likely to be
Active data • Active data are referenced on a regular basis during day-to-day business operations.
Data becomes active as soon as it is of interest to an organization. Data life cycle begins with a business need for acquiring data. • The ease of access for users to active data is an absolute necessity in order to run an efficient job
Over time, this data loses its importance and is accessed less often, gradually losing its business value, and ending with its archival or disposal.
Inactive Data • Data are put out to archived data once they are no longer active. i.e. there are no longer needed for critical business tasks or analysis. • In past, most enterprises archived data in Microfilms and tape back-ups.
Information Lifecycle Management • ILM is the practice of applying certain policies to the effective management of information throughout its useful life.
Records and Information Management (RIM) Professionals for over three decades manage information in paper or other physical forms (microfilm, negatives, photographs, audio or video recordings and other assets).
With so much data being held, data, during its lifetime, the data will be moved to different physical location. • This is because depending on where it is in lifecycle; it need to be located on the most appropriate storage device.
ILM is comprised of the policies, processes, practices, and tools used to align the business value of information with the most appropriate and cost effective IT infrastructure.
ILM includes every phase of a "record" from its beginning to its end. • During its existence, information can become a record by being identified as documenting a business transaction or as satisfying a business need.
Much recorded information may not serve a business need of any sort, but still serves to document a critical point in history or to document an event. • Examples of these are birth, death, medical/health and educational records.
Phases of ILM • Planning • Creation and Receipt • Organization • Use & Distribution • Maintenance, protection, & preservation • Disposition • Evaluation
Creation and Receipt • Deals with records created by a member of an organization at varying levels or receipt of information from an external source. • It includes correspondence, forms, reports, drawings, computer input/output, or other sources.
Organization • Libraries need a unique record of all of items that are added to the collection • For contracted resources and web resources, links might be provided and created for users • Classification and cataloguing generate records of documents or items together with subject access keys such as keyword, subject, descriptor
Distribution • The process of managing the information once it has been created or received. • This includes both internal and external distribution, as information that leaves an organization becomes a record of a transaction with others.
Use • Takes place after information is distributed internally, and can generate business decisions, document further actions, or serve other purposes.
Maintenance This can include processes such as filing, retrieval and transfers. • Filing is actually the process of arranging information and creating a system to manage it for its useful existence within an organization. • Failure to establish a good method for filing information makes its retrieval and use nearly impossible.
Transferring information refers to the process of responding to requests, retrieval from files and providing access to users authorized by the organization to have access to the information. • While removed from the files, the information is tracked by the use of various processes to ensure it is returned and/or available to others who may need access to it
Disposition It is the practice of handling information that is less frequently accessed or has met its assigned retention periods. • Less frequently accessed records may be considered for relocation to an 'inactive records facility' until they have met their assigned retention period.
Retention periods are based on: • the creation of an organization-specific retention schedule, and • legal requirements for management of information for the industry in which the organization operates.
If the information has met all of these needs and is no longer considered to be valuable, it should be disposed of by means appropriate for the content. • This may include ensuring that others cannot obtain access to outdated or obsolete information as well as measures for protection privacy and confidentiality.
Information lifecycle Management (ILM) includes process, policies, software and hardware so that the appropriate technology can be used for each phase of the lifecycle of the data which makes it very easy to implement an ILM solution:
Application • It allows various changes to be made to the data without any impact on the application that are using that data. • Low cost storage • It can take advantage of all the different types of storage devices and the maximum amount of data can be held for the lowest possible cost
ILM is concerned with all data that is held within an organization. • This mean not just structured data, such as orders in a daily transaction system or a history of sales in a data warehouse, but it is also concerned with unstructured data such as email, documents and images.
Software of ILM provides the capability to store unstructured data such as images and documents. • It includes role based security to ensure content is only accessed by authorized personnel and policies which describe what happens to the content during its lifetime
It can manage and move the data as it evolve during its lifetime, without having to worry about managing multiple types of data stores
Implementing ILM Building an Information Management Lifecycle solution can be achieved by the following steps: • Step 1 define the data classes • Step 2 create storage tiers for the data classes • Step 3 Create data access and migration policies • Step 4 define and enforce compliance policies
Step 1 define the data classes The first step is to look at all the data in your organization, what type of data is it, where is stored? and determine: • Which data is important, where is it and what needs to be retained • How this data flows within the organization
What happens to this data over time and is it still needed • The degree of data availability and protection that is needed • Data retention for legal and business requirements
Step 2 Create storage tiers for data classes Since IT can take advantage of all the different storage options that are available, the next step is to establish the following storage tiers: • High performance • Low cost • Online archive • Offline archive (optional)
High performance • The high performance storage tier is where all the important and frequently accessed data would be stored, such as the partition holding our Q1 orders. • This would utilize the smaller, faster disks on high performance storage devices.
Low cost • The low cost storage tier is where the less frequently accessed data is stored, such as the partitions holding the orders for Q2, Q3 and Q4. • This tier would be built using large capacity disks, such as those found in modular storage arrays or the low costs ATA disks, which offer the maximum storage inexpensively.
Online archive • The online archive storage tier is where all the data that is never or hardly accessed would be stored. • It is likely to be extremely large and to store the maximum quantity of data on the online archive storage tier, various techniques can be used to compress the data. • This tier could be located in the database or it could be in another database, which serves as a central archive database for all information within the enterprise.
Stored on low cost storage devices like the ATA drives, the data would still be online and available, for a cost that is only slightly higher than storing this information on tape, without all the disadvantages that come with archiving data to tape. • If the online archive storage tier is identified as read-only, then it would be impossible to change the data and database backups would not be required after it is backed up the first time.
Offline archive (optional) • The offline archive storage tier is optional, because it is only used when there is a requirement to remove data from the database and store it in some other format such as on a tape
Step 3 Create data access and migration policies • Specify who can access the data and the operations they may perform and how to move the data during its lifetime • Managing access to data • Migrate data between class • Regulatory compliance
Managing access to data • Regulatory requirement are beginning to place exacting demands on how data can be accessed. Effective methods for controlling what authorized users of the database
Migrate data between classes • During the lifecycle of the data it will be necessary to move it at various times and this occurs for variety of reason, such as: • For performance, only a limited number of orders are held on the high performance disks
Data is no longer frequently accessed and is using valuable high performance storage and needs to be moved to a low-cost storage device • Legal requirements demand that the information is always available for a given period of time, and it needs to be held safely at the lowest possible cost
Sometimes individual data items must be moved rather than a group of data. • Example, suppose data was classified according to a level of privacy, and a report, which was once secret, is now to be made available to the public.
If the classification changed from secret to public, and the data was partition on its privacy classification, the row would automatically move to the partition containing public data
Whenever data is moved from its original source, then it is very important to ensure that the process selected to any regulatory requirement, • such as the data cannot be altered, it secure from unauthorized access, easily readable and stored in an approved location