First RespondersDoes Radiation Change the Response Thomas F. O’Connell Health Physics Society Midyear Meeting AAHP February 12, 2005 New Orleans, LA
Possible First Responders • Emergency Medical Services • Law Enforcement • Fire Service • Citizens
Initial Notification • 911 Call • Dispatch • Station • Details • Location • Event • Dependent on Observer
Guidelines for Response • Weapons of Mass Destruction • Hazardous Materials with Attitude • National Fire Protection Association • NFPA 471 Responding to HazMat • NFPA 472 HazMat Competence • NFPA 473 EMS HazMat • Consensus Standards
Requirements for Response • OSHA • 1910.38, Emergency Action Plans • 1910.120, Hazardous waste operations and emergency response • 1910.120(q), Emergency response program to hazardous substance releases • EPA40 CFR 311 Worker Protection • Brings Everyone Under OSHA
Response Structure • Incident Specific • Multiple Agencies • Short Term or Long Term • Accountability • Control • Function Based • Sounds Like Incident Command
Why Use ICS • Time Proven System of Management • Standardized Approach • Common Terminology • Modular and Flexible • Cost Effective • All Hazards Concept
Roles and Missions • Law Enforcement • Investigation • Security of Scene and Responders • Emergency Medical Services • Medical • Fire Department • Rescue • Fire Suppression • Others
Response Ideology • Workforce Protection • Safe Work in an Unsafe Environment • Control Incident Movement • Protect Population • Preserve Property
Sizing Up the Incident • Establishing the Scene • Impact on Services • Personal Protective Equipment • Tactics and Strategies • Offensive/Defensive • Communications
Incident Action Plan • Every Incident - Verbal or Written • Provides Direction for: • Operational Period • Measurable Tactical Operations • Minimum of Four Elements • What do We Want to do? • Who is Responsible for Job? • How to Communicate? • Procedures for Injuries?
Re-Evaluate Constantly • Prioritize Critical Missions • Changing Conditions • Weather – Now and Projected • Unavailable Assets • Additional Assets • Experts • Communications
Responder Questions • Radiation Limits • Dose Rates • Exposure • When to Work • When to Leave • Short Term or Long Term Incidents
Appendix A Electronic Dosimeter Alarm Point Guidance Alarm Set Point Type Reading3 Comments1, 2 Responder Actions 1st Dose Rate 2 mrem/hr This is a generally accepted value to be used to establish the hot zone (exclusion area) for a response to a transportation accident involving radiation. Continue rescue and investigation activities. Establish exclusion zone. 2nd Dose Rate 10000 mrem/hr (10 Rem/hr) Recommended value listed in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report Number 138 Leave the area unless rescue of known victims can be accomplished efficiently and within guidance values for accumulated dose alarms to responders. Accumulated doses greater than 10 Rem must be carefully considered. Seek expert advice. 1st Accumulated Dose 2500 mrem (2.5 Rem) This is one-half of the 5000 mrem annual regulatory exposure limit for occupationally exposed radiation workers. 2nd Accumulated Dose 10000 mrem (10 Rem) This is less than one-half the 25000 mrem dose value listed in EPA 400-R-92-001 for lifesaving or protection of large populations. Recommended value listed in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report Number 138.
Summary • Established Structure • Trained Responders • Continued Education • Perspective is Important • Integration and Collaboration • Prepare, Respond, Recover