Safeguarding Children in Education Child Protection Training (Secondary Sector) With gratefulthanks to Warrington County Council
OBJECTIVES • By the end of the session, participants will be able to: - • State their role in safeguarding children from harm • Define the different categories of child abuse • Identify the signs and indicators of child abuse in order to respond appropriately in accordance with the school’s child protection policy and the established local procedures. • Explain how they should respond to child welfare concerns • Identify situations when they might feel vulnerable.
PRINCIPLES OF WORKING TOGETHER • For the purposes of this training, case details or individual views should remain confidential unless the information given or the views expressed compromise the safety of children or young people. • The very nature of child protection training means that uncomfortable feelings or memories may resurface during the session. If this is the case, please look after yourself and perhaps consider speaking to the trainer once the session has concluded. • No one will be “put on the spot” although some of the activities will promote discussion and any contributions or questions would be welcome.
CHILDHOOD • “Children are real living people. But childhood is a set of ideas about what children are and ought to be like, and how they should behave and relate to adults”. (Alderson, 2003, p.7)
PREFACE • Children spend half their waking hours in school and for some it is their only safe place in their daily life. • Teachers are often the first people to identify concerns that children are being abused or the first people that children may tell about their experience of abuse. • Recent NSPCC research found that 52% of NQTs had been involved with at least one child protection case during their first year of teaching (Baginsky, 2003)
LISTENING TO CHILDREN • “Experience, and consultation with children, shows they they will talk about their concerns and problems to people they feel they can trust and feel comfortable with. It will not necessarily be a teacher”. • Safeguarding Children in Education, Annex B.9
WHO CHILDREN TELL? • Friends - 30.4% • mothers -24% • Childline -11.1% • Fathers -11% • Another close relative i.e. aunt -6.8% • No-one - 6.6% • Teacher - 5.4%
WHY ARE WE HERE THEN? • Change for Children • Children Act 2004 following death of Victoria Climbié • Bichard Enquiry following the Soham Murders • Change to the Education Act 2002 following the death of Lauren Wright
SAFEGUARDING IS EVERYONE’S BUSINESS • “Tragically, it required nothing more than basic good practice being put into operation”. • Lord Laming (2003) • Victoria Climbié
“The support and protection of children cannot be achieved by a single agency . . . . Every service has to play its part. All staff must have placed upon them the clear expectation that their primary responsibility is to the child and his or her family.”
Whole systems approachContinuum of need Increasing vulnerability
Children Act 1989 Children Act 2004 Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 DCSF Guidance LSCBs Local authority & schools Child Protection Policies FRAMEWORK OF LEGISLATION & GUIDANCE UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 Education Act 2002
UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD 1989 • The UN lists the responsibilities which governments, parents and other adults have for the lives of children: • Article 19 – Children have the right to be protected from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation including sexual abuse by those looking after them. • Article 3 – When organisations make decisions which affect children, the best interests of the child must be a primary consideration
“EVERY CHILD MATTERS”Outcomes Framework • Being healthy • Staying safe • Enjoying and achieving by getting the most out of life and developing skills for adulthood. • Making a positive contribution to society • Economic well-being.
EVERY CHILD MATTERS – THE VISION • Improved outcomes for children • Focus on opportunities for all and narrowing gaps • Support for parents, carers and families • Shift to prevention, early identification and intervention • Integrated and personalised services
KEY THEMES • Outcomes • Participation • Integration of services • Accountability for services • Accessibility of services
CHILDREN ACT 2004 • Seeks to make fundamental changes to the way children’s services will be delivered and co-ordinated across a range of agencies. • Section 10 Co-operation to improve well-being • Section 11 Arrangements to safeguard & promote welfare • Section 12 Information databases • Section 13 Establishment of local safeguarding children boards (LSCBs)
CHILDREN ACT 1989 • Comprehensive and far reaching reform. • Promotes children’s welfare. • Support for parents and extended family. • Protection of children from harm. • Intervention to safeguard the child’s welfare. • Interagency networking
THE ACT’S MAIN PRINCIPLES ... • Children are best cared for within their own families. • The welfare of the child is the paramount consideration. • State should not intervene in family life. • Local authorities work in partnership with families. • Local authorities must have regard to children’s racial origin, cultural and linguistic background and religious persuasion.
LAUREN WRIGHT • “I think that the key failure in Lauren’s case was the schooling. She was at school for 16 months before her death. She was aged 6 and lost 4 stone in that time and quite a lot of her hair and presented at school with bruising, as is evidenced in the trial. Yet staff did not report any concerns …”
LAUREN WRIGHT 1994 - 2000 • When she died, she had lost four stone and weighed just two stone. • Lauren often appeared with bruises which were explained away. • Lauren was killed by her step-mother
LAUREN WRIGHT1994 - 2000 • “Lots of times, often she was covered with lots of small bruises and with major bruises about once a month. These included black eyes, bruising on her face and scratches across her back”. • Class Teacher • “her physical deterioration had been apparent for at least five months before she died” • Head Teacher
WHAT WENT WRONG? • Lauren’s class teacher had received no child protection training • The Step-mother told the paediatrician that the bruises were the result of bullying in school. • The Designated Child Protection Co-ordinator had left the school. • A Governor offered to take on the responsibility for child protection. • No referral was made by either of the teachers to Social Care.
WHAT WENT WRONG? • Lauren’s Step-mother was a member of staff in the school.
BARRIERS TO DIAGNOSIS • ‘The biggest barrier to diagnosis is the existence of emotional blocks in the minds of professionals. These can be so powerful that they prevent diagnosis even being considered in quite obvious cases. All those working with children should be warned that their overwhelming impulse on confronting their first case is to cover it up.’ • British Medical Journal (1989)
SECTION 175 EDUCATION ACT 2002 • (1) A local education authority shall make arrangements for ensuring that the functions conferred on them in their capacity as a local education authority are exercised with a view to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children.
SECTION 175 EDUCATION ACT 2002 • (2) The Governing Body of a maintained school shall make arrangements for ensuring that its functions relating to the conduct of the school are exercised with a view to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children who are pupils of the school.
SAFEGUARDING • All agencies to ensure the risks to children’s welfare are minimised. • Where there are concerns, all agencies take action to address those concerns. • Working to agreed local policies and procedures. • Working in full partnership with other local agencies.
Child Protection Anti Bullying Policies Staff Conduct Curriculum Safeguarding Safeguarding Attendance Managing Allegations Against Staff Behaviour Management A “Listening” School Health and Safety Building Design Safe Recruitment and Selection
SHARED OBJECTIVE • Provide a safe environment for children and young people to learn in education setting. • Identify children and young people who are suffering or likely to suffer significant harm and take action with the aim of keeping them safe.
CHILD ABUSE “FACTS AND FIGURES” • 31% bullied during childhood • 7% are seriously physically abused by parents or carers during childhood. • 1% sexually abused by a parent or carer during childhood. • 3% sexually abused by another relative during childhood. • One average 1 child is killed by a parent or carer every week in England and Wales. • NSPCC
DUTY TO REFER • All professionals have a duty to refer cases where abuse is known to have occurred or is suspected. No professional has the right or responsibility to withhold information or to respect a child’s/young person’s wish for confidentiality.
To ensure that all staff, know about, and have access to, a copy of the “SET PROCEDURES” (As from 01 October 2006) and the school’s internal procedures for child protection and that all cases of suspected abuse are reported in the correct way. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE DESIGNATED PERSON FOR CHILD PROTECTION
RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE DESIGNATED PERSON FOR CHILD PROTECTION Guided by two important principles:- The welfare of the child is paramount. Confidentiality should be respected as far as possible without compromising the first principle.
WHAT IS ABUSE AND NEGLECT? • A person may abuse or neglect a child by inflicting harm or by failing to prevent harm. Children and young people may be abused in a family or in an institutional or community setting; by those known to them or, more rarely, by a stranger.
CHILDREN ACT 1989 • Children At Risk (Section 47) The Local Authority shall make enquiries where there isreasonable cause tosuspectthat a child or young person living in the area issuffering or is likely to suffer significant harm.
ACTIVITY • Discuss the signs you might encounter which could indicate possible abuse.
CATEGORIES OF ABUSE • Physical • Neglect • Emotional • Sexual Often interlinked
Child’s presentation SIGNS & INDICATORS OF ABUSE Relationships between the adult & child Other adult related issues
NEGLECT • Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development.
NEGLECT • Failing to provide adequate food, clothing and shelter. • Failure to protect a child from physical harm or danger. • Failing to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment. • Neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs.
Tired, listless. Unkempt appearance. Poor personal hygiene. Untreated medical conditions. Hungry or over-eats when food available. Poor growth. Poor or late attendance at school. NEGLECT