Jain Festivals & Calendar JAINA Convention, Cincinnati 2003 Yashwant K. Malaiya email@example.com
Jainism Festivals • Why we celebrate • Paryushan & Diwali • Major festivals: • Anniversaries • vratas • Local festivals • Paramapara Acharya Anniversaries • Melas & yatras • Internet resource
Why Do We Celebrate? We are fortunate enough to attend samosharan of a Tirthankar. • We can feel divine presence by celebrating the five kalyanakas. • Celebrate to renew our resolve to follow kevali-guided dharma. • We celebrate the joy of shravakahood. • Often austerities, not conspicuous consumption.
Indian Calendar • There are • 12 months in a year (but exceptions common) • 2 paksha: Krisha (vad), Shukla (sudi) • 15 tithis in paksha • Northern system: • Chaitra (March-April) to Phalgun • Month ends on full moon (Purnima). • Western system (Kalnirnaya calendar) • Kartika (Oct.-Nov.) to Ashvin • Month ends on new moon (Amavasya)
Paryushan: Celebrating Self-control • History: Four months of rainy season stay by monks must be initiated by Bhadrapad Shukla 5. • Marks interaction between monks (or scholars) & shravakas. • Many days of festivities, austerities, reflection & renewal. • Shvetambara: 8 days ending on Bhadra. Sh. 4 or 5. • Digambaras:10 days starting on Bhadra. Sh. 5.
Paryushan: Reflection Pratikramana: reflection on ones spiritual journey & renewal of faith • Periodic: twice daily, twice monthly, quarterly or annual (samvatsari) • Format: Equanimity, prayers, reflections, detachment, resolutions as prescribed. • Common to Shvetambar & Digambar traditions in some form.
Paryushan: Traditions Shvetambar: • Reading of Kalpasutra, section on including Lord Mahavira’s birth • Requesting forgiveness on samvatsari: Micchami dukkadam Digambar: • Dashalakshan vrat: 10 attributes of dharma: forgiveness, gentleness etc. • Sugandh-10th, Anant-14th, Kshamavani (1st)
Diwali: Mahavira’s Nirvana • TiloyapaNNatti, Uttarapurana etc: “During night of Kartika Krishna 14, during the svati nakshatra, lord Mahavira became a Siddha” • Kalpasutra: The kings said: “Because the divine light is gone, let us create light of material things”
Diwali: Mahavira’s Nirvana • Harivamsha-Purana by Acharya Jinasena “People in Bharata celebrate "Dipalika", to worship Jinendra on the occasion of his nirvana” • Brahmanical views of Diwali • return of Ram to Ayodhya (not in Ramayana) • slaying of Narakasur (not in Mahabharata) • return of daitya king Bali (Bhavishyottar Purana) • Sikh interpretations
Diwali: related festivals • Dhan trayodashi (Kartika K 13): day for purchasing pots and pans. • Diwali night (Kartika K 14): when Lord Mahavira attained nirvana. • Nirvana Celebration: Diwali (Kartika K 15): On this morning, special worship is performed. • New year and Gautam Kevalajnana (Kartika S 1): First day of the Jain calendar and Kartikadi Vikrama Samvat. The chief ganadhara Gautam attained kevala-jnana. • Bhai Bija S (Kartika S 2): sisters invite brothers to mark the day when the sister of Lord Mahavira had invited her brother to comfort him.
Jinas: 5 Auspicious Events • Panch-Kalyanakas: • Garbh: conception • Janma: birth • Tapa: Renunciation • Keval-jnana: absolute enlightenment • Moksh: liberation • Reenected during installation of a new idol • Anniversaries celebrted with special worship
Lord Rishabh • Akshaya Tratiya (Vaishakh S 3): Lord Rishabha broke his fast by accepting sugar-cane juice. Visit Shatrunjay on this day. • Rishabha Nirvana or Jinaratri (Magha K 14): Popular in South India.
Lord Mahavira • Lord Mahavira’s birth (Chaitra Shukla 13): Special processions and functions • Vira Shasan Jayanti (Shravana K 1): dharma as established by Lord Mahavira.
Vratas: Self-Control • Vrata: self control, austerity. Often fasting. • Many vratas in different sects. Procedures prescribed: • some are annual, monthly, weekly etc. • Some based on nakshatras. • Often fixed duration • Completion of a vrata as specified • For details experts should be consulted.
Some Popular Vratas • Varshitap S (Chaitra K 8 to Vaishakha S 4 of next year): The story of Shreyans Kumar. • Navpad Oli-Ayambil S (Chaitra S 7 – 15, Ashvina S 7 – 15): This is associated with Siddhachakra worship and story of Maina Sundari. • Ratnatraya D (Chaitra S 12–15, Bhadrapada S 12-15, Magha S 12-15): The story of King Vaishravana is associated with this vrata. • Ashtanhika D (Ashadha S 8–15, Kartika S 8–15, Phalguna S 8–15): This is associated with the story of Harishena chakravarti.
Parampara Acharya Jayantis • Lord Mahavira : 12 Ganas headed by Ganadharas. • We have Acharyas: head an order • Shantisagar Jayanti (Bhadrapad S 2): The first Digambar Acharya to return to North India in 20th cent. • Manidhari Jinachandra Suri, Dada guru (Ashvina K 2): He was a celebrated Acharya of Kharataragachchh. • Hemachandra Jayanti (Kartika S 15): celebrated author, preceptor of king Kumarpal. • Lonkashah Jayanti (Kartika S 15): originated the non-idol worshipping tradtion. • Taran Taran Jayanti (Margashirsha S7): Taran Swami was founder of Taran Panth in Bundelkhand. • Kundakunda Acharyapad (Pausha K 8): first century CE in South India, classic texts like the Samayasara.
Rath Yatras • Public proclamation of Jain faith • Authority given by kings & governments • Consult local Jain calendars
Rath Yatras Rath Yatra in 11th century Patan (Gujarat)
Tirth Melas Annual gathering of Shravakas at tirthas • Kundalpur MP (Chaitra K 13) • Mahavirji Raj. (Vaishakh K 1) • Dadabadi Mahrauli (Bhadrapad K 7) • Pavapuri, Shatrunjay, Kumbhoj, Muktagiri, Kachner, Mangi-Tungi, Taranga, Papura, Siddhavarakut, Kolkata etc. (Kartika S 15) • Sammet Shikhar, Jhar. (Pausha K 10) • Kesariaji, Raj. (Magh K 13)
Ashtamis & Chaturdashis • All Ashtamis and Chaturdashis are regarded to be special days. • 3 four-monthly chaturdashis (Kartika, Phalguna, Ashadha) have special significance.
Vir Nirvan Samvat • Started with Nirvana of Lord Mahavira on Oct. 15, 527 BCE. • Vir Nirvan Samvat 2529 started right after Diwali of 2002 CE. • Vikram Samvat is named after a king Vikramaditya. • In west, Vikram Samvat 2060 started after Diwali 2002. In north, it started later on Chaitra S 1.
Jain Calendar & Festivalson Internet • Jain Festivals • http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/Jain_Festivals.htm • Includes links to other sites on Jain fectivals • Or at Google search of “Jain Festivals” http://www.onmission.com/webzine/may_jun01/net_generation.htm
Time computation • In Indian calendars, the celestial bodies the sun, the moon and the stars serve as time-keepers. • The movements of the celestial bodies are not synchronized. • An average day • divided into 24 hours in the western system. • divided into 60 ghatis (daris) of 24 minutes each in India • One Lunar month is one full Lunar cycle • of 29.5306 days. • In India, a Lunar month is divided 30 tithis, • thus each tithi is shorter than a day. • the tithi may change twice within a day. A complex formula is used to determine the tithi of a day.