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  1. Jalgaon River Linking Project Prepared by : Vijay Singhal, IAS

  2. River Linking Project Why ?

  3. Inter linking of rivers • Inter linking of rivers as a solution for drought and flood. • It was Sir Arthur Cotton who had originally proposed the networking of rivers more than a century ago. • Channelling the surplus water to underfed areas will solve the perennial problem of floods and droughts and bring a boom in employment.

  4. Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam(ex- President of India) “Instead of thinking of interlinking of rivers only at times of flood and drought, it’s time that we should implement this programme with a great sense of urgency.”

  5. River Linking Project “Of all the social and natural crisis we face, water crisis lie at the heart of our survival” -Kochiro Matsuura, Director General of UNESCO

  6. Map of Maharashtra

  7. Map of Jalgaon District

  8. Jalgaon District Jalgaon District: Brief History • Jalgaon District is located in the north-west region of the state of Maharashtra • Bounded by Satpuda mountain ranges in the north and Ajanta mountain ranges in the south • Diverse climate • Exceptionally hot and dry in summer with temps up to 48° C

  9. Jalgaon District: Brief History • Principle natural feature – Tapi River, which flows westward from headwaters in eastern Maharashtra and empties in the Arabian Sea • The Tapi receives 13 principal tributaries in its course through Khandesh • Most of Khandesh lies south of the Tapi • The Tapi is drained by its tributaries: the Girna, Bori and Anjani Rivers • The Tapi flows in a deep bed, historically making it difficult to use for irrigation

  10. Situation..... June and July 2005 Lots of clouds – but no rains!

  11. Water Levels Down July 2005 Water level drastically reduced in wells!

  12. Land Drought June and July 2005 July 2005 Lots of clouds – but no rains! This was the land situation !

  13. Stunted Crop Growth July 2005 Improper growth of crops due to insufficient rains

  14. Jalgaon: “River Linking Project” Idea Generation and Concept: Necessity is the Mother of Inventions! In the Monsoon of 2005, there were insufficient rains in the Jalgaon district – while the Girna Dam (a major project situated in south west, adjoining the Nashik district) was overflowing because of heavy rains in Nashik district. So this water, which was otherwise going waste in the Arabian Sea through Jalgaon district, was diverted – it was then the idea of river linking generated... Average Rainfall of Jalgaon District: 700.28 MM

  15. Necessity: Mother of Invention! Bhokar Bari Medium Project We’re thinking about how to solve the problem of drinking water in Parola Tah, Jalgaon District during this time of insufficient stocks of water... In the meantime, Girna Dam in the adjoining district of Nashik, is at the verge of reaching its maximum capacity ! (post 15th July 2005)

  16. Jalgaon: “River Linking Project” • How to bring the overflowing waters of Girna River using existing canals, channels, nalas and other links into the Bori, Anjani and Titur rivers? • Is it possible to refill Medium Projects, M.I. Projects, percolation tanks, village ponds, farm ponds, and mines on this route? Planning after discussion with Irrigation Department Officials • Different solutions and ideas were discussed and compared • Proposal submitted to Government under scarcity fund • Government sanctioned Rs. 20 million • Implementation started immediately as per planning Widening Nalla

  17. Girna Bori, Girna Titur, Girna Mhasva,Girna Anjani Strategies Adopted • Diversion of surplus flood water into deficient basin: • 160 villages dependent for drinking water on reservoirs were covered under this, (Bori dam covers the highly drought-prone areas of Dhule and Jalgaon districts) • Existing canals and other systems were utilised to the maximum capacity with minimum possible modifications • Existing canal systems (Jamda canals, Titur canals, Lower Girna canals,) with increased capacity and maximum discharge kept on flowing and diverting water to deficient storages • Use of gravity rather than pumping for diversion of water.

  18. Strategies Adopted... • Existing canal capacity was increased by raising canal banks with earth work; rugosity coefficient was improved by laying PVC paper of low cost at leaky portions • Aqueduct and syphons capacity increased by raising wall heights with B. B. masonry temporarily and PVC paper was laid in the channels to increase the rugosity coefficient • Low cost polyethene paper was used at canal apexes and in aqueduct beds, syphons to improve the rugosity coefficient (increase carrying capacity in turn with Jamda left Bank Canal, Panzan left Bank Canal, etc.) • Short Links – searched to divert the higher discharges, i.e., Panzan to Bori Girna dam

  19. Strategies Adopted... • New links wherever required were dug immediately – Jamda to Khadakesim, Jamda to Titur • Existing deficient storages got filled and canal water diverted to wells in command, • Reservoir capacity was increased to store maximum possible water by putting gunny bags on top of w. w. with calculated risk (i.e., no encroachment beyond high flood level and can be easily pulled down by simply wire rope in a flood situation)

  20. Jalgaon: “River Linking Project” Project Objectives 1. Providing water for drinking as well as irrigation purposes in the drought hit areas of Jalgaon district by using diverted excess overflowing water 2. Increase the efficiency of different water storage structures 3. Conserve the water by taking it through canals ducts, drains, nallas, natural drains etc. in the drought-prone areas 4. Carry out qualitative and quantitative assessment of water resource 5. Suggest suitable sites and methods for artificial recharge to augment ground water recharge in the area.

  21. River Connectivity Project

  22. River Linking Paths Girna Dam-Panzan Left Canal – Water Passage (Nala) – Kanoli River – Bori River –Dhamangaon Bandhara – Budhgaon Bandhara- Bori River -Bori Dam. Distance: 68 km Girna Dam – Girna River-Jamda Bandharas –J amda Left Canal – Parola Branch link cut Canal – Mhasva Minor irrigation pond – Link Cut – Bhokarbari Medium. Project Distance: 132 km Girna Dam-Girna river-Jamda Bandhara-Jamda Right Canal-Parola Branch Canal –Water Passage (Nala) - Kala Bandhara – Anjani River. Distance: 127 km Girna Dam-Girna River-Jamda Bandhara-Jamda Right Canal-Water Passage (Nala) – Titur River–Hol Bandhara–Balad Bandhara–Wadgaon Bandhara-Titur River. Distance: 84 km Girna Dam- Girna River-Jamda Dam-Girna River-Dahigaon Bandhara-Lower Girna left Canal-Water Passage (Nala) -Anjani River-Pimri Bandhara. Distance: 186 km

  23. River Linking Project Work Done !

  24. Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done To divert excessive overflowing water, the work of stone breaking and digging was carried out on war footing to create additional channel

  25. Jalgaon Work started on war footing Resulted in diversion of higher discharge

  26. Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done PVC lining increased rugosity coefficient

  27. Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done

  28. Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done

  29. Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done

  30. Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done

  31. Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done New Link Dug

  32. Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done Canal carrying capacity increased by raising its height

  33. Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done Carrying capacity of existing canals increased by raising bank height – these canals were then used for linking various rivers Use of Canals for River Linking

  34. Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done Panzhan Left Canal was cut here to divert Girna’s water in the Kanholi and then Bori river through Big Nala (water passage)

  35. Jalgaon District “River Linking Project” Work Done Panzhan Left Canal was cut here to divert Girna’s water in Kanholi and then Bori river through Big Nala (water passage)

  36. Jalgaon River Linking Project Post Project Scenario

  37. Jalgaon River Linking Project Before After

  38. Jalgaon River Linking Project Water overflowing the Weir

  39. Jalgaon River Linking Project Village pond filled up using Girna River water (Rotwad Tal. Dharangaon)

  40. Jalgaon River Linking Project Water overflowing through Weir (Anjani River)

  41. Jalgaon River Linking Project Farm pond filled up using Girna Riverwater (Tahsil : Dharangaon)

  42. Jalgaon River Linking Project Wichkhed Weir, Parola Municipal Council Water Supply Source

  43. Jalgaon River Linking Project Water overflowing through Weir, Dahiwad Tal. Amalner, Dist. Jalgaon

  44. Jalgaon District

  45. Jalgaon River Linking Project Benefits Received : Helped solve the drinking water problem of 5 municipal councils and 128 villages (dependent population = 8,23,500) Increased water table in some Tahsils (even after less rainfall) – over 16,000 wells recharged as endorsed by GSDA( Groundwater Survey Development Agency of Govt), in its report

  46. Jalgaon River Linking Project Life saver for almost lost crops! Thousands of hectors of additional land irrigated; highest irrigation in the history of Jalgaon (about 35% more irrigated area) – even though 30% less than average rain fall Area under irrigation:

  47. Jalgaon River Linking Project Contd.. Total of 4,486 Mcft (127Mm3) excessive overflowing water of Girna dam brought to use - Cost of this water : Rs. 112 millions • This water filled: • 2 medium projects, • 5 M.I. projects, and • 700 percolation tanks, K.T. weirs, farm ponds, and mines Saved approximately Rs. 90 million of Water Scarcity Funds

  48. Jalgaon River Linking Project Indirect Benefits • Improved economic condition of farmers • Prohibited migration of local & poor people in search of jobs • Saved huge expenditure which would have been incurred to provide employment under Employment Guarantee Scheme of Govt. • Repaired canals – which further reduced seepages and other losses • Total benefits: Rs. 250-300 million, as per rough estimates – in one year only and these benefits are recurring every year.

  49. Jalgaon River Linking Project Benefits Received: 30 Recurring Benefits 25 25 20 15 in Rs crs 11 9 10 5 0 Project Cost Savings in tanker costs Additional Storage Increased benefit to -2 agriculturists -5

  50. Jalgaon River Linking Project Irrigation Deptt.: Funds for basic survey repair & maintenance Jalgaon Collectorate: Scarcity funds (Head:2245) Municipal Corporation/Councils : Internal resources for augmenting water availability for drinking MP/MLA Local Area Development Scheme: For various developmental work Land-owners, agricultural communities and citizen groups contribution RESOURCE CONVERGENCE : technical and financial Following sources of funding were tapped: