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Style in writing

Style in writing

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Style in writing

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  1. Style in writing Aleksandra Kasztalska ENGL 106i April 7, 2014

  2. Announcements! The course schedule has CHANGED! Please review the changes so that you know the class organizationand deadlines for the rest of the semester!

  3. Fill out the table given to you by Aleks. For each persuasive appeal: • Provide a short definition using your own words, • Identify the kind of textual elements that suggest the author is using this particular strategy (in other words, what exactly in the text is an example of this persuasive appeal?), • Identify the kind of effect or reaction that the appeal likely has on the reader (in other words, what is the author trying to achieve by using this persuasive appeal?). Please do NOT use the computer or your notes to write your answers.

  4. Persuasive appeals • Adapted from: http://sdsuwriting.pbworks.com/w/file/57859186/Rhetorical%20Strategies.ppt

  5. Persuasive appeals • Adapted from: http://sdsuwriting.pbworks.com/w/file/57859186/Rhetorical%20Strategies.ppt

  6. Moving on…

  7. Style Characteristic manner of expression used in a text, how the author expresses whatever he or she says. Style is composed of the following elements: • Vocabulary (formal/informal, slang, jargon, abstract, offensive, etc.) • Sentence structure and organization (short/long, declarative/ imperative/interrogative/exclamatory, repetitions, order of ideas) • Tone (attitude of the author toward the issue, ex. seriousness, playfulness, satire, approval or disapproval) • Point of view (narrator or the author’s role in the issue, ex. participant, observer, uninvolved or “objective” researcher, multiple perspectives)

  8. Features of an academic writing style Vocabulary? • Formal • Jargon • Abstract Sentence structure and organization? • Often long and complex • Mostly declarative sentences • Follows expected organization (ex. introduction, methodology, results, etc.) Tone? • Serious Point of view? • Often “objective” researcher

  9. Features of an academic writing style Politeness involves considerations of maintaining face, one’s own as well as the addressee’s. Face is defined as the ‘public self-image that every member wants to claim for himself’ (Goffman, 1967: 5). Brown and Levinson (1987), working with the notion of face, identify two aspects of politeness in verbal interaction, positive face (presentational) and negative face (avoidance). Positive face indicates a want or need to be desirable to others; therefore, it functions as a strategy of friendliness or camaraderie. Negative face indicates a want or need not to be impeded by others; therefore, it functions as a distancing strategy of formality. All members of a speech community use positive and negative politeness strategies to save, maintain, and enhance face. Brown and Levinson (1987) describe a number of strategies and their linguistic realizations that maintain and enhance positive and negative face of interlocutors in conversation. Kachru, Y. & Nelson, C. L. (2006). World Englishes in Asian Contexts. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

  10. Features of an academic writing style Jargon, specialized abbreviations Formal vocabulary and connecting words Single word verbs Reference to credible sources as supporting evidence Abstract nouns/noun phrases Complex sentences Politeness involvesconsiderations of maintainingface, one’s own as well as the addressee’s. Face is defined as the ‘public self-image that every member wants to claim for himself’ (Goffman, 1967: 5). Brown and Levinson (1987), working with the notion of face, identify two aspects of politeness in verbal interaction, positive face (presentational) and negative face (avoidance). Positive face indicates a want or need to be desirable to others; therefore, it functions as a strategy of friendliness or camaraderie. Negative face indicates a want or need not to be impeded by others; therefore, it functions as a distancing strategy of formality. All members of a speech community use positive and negative politeness strategies to save, maintain, and enhance face. Brown and Levinson (1987) describe a number of strategies and their linguistic realizations that maintain and enhance positive and negative face of interlocutorsin conversation. Kachru, Y. & Nelson, C. L. (2006). World Englishes in Asian Contexts. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

  11. Features of an academic writing style Words derived from Latin/French origin (single word verbs) to put to put together  to assemble to show  to illustrate next  subsequent No contractions He doesn’t He does not They would’ve They would have Impersonal constructions I argue that  The main argument guiding this paper is that I recommend that  It is recommended that Cautious language/hedging It is obvious that  It appears that The findings prove that  The findings suggest that Nominalization (using nouns to express complex ideas) Being polite  Politeness

  12. In-class activity! Please see the exercise sheet titled “Analysis of a formal academic text.”

  13. Sources consulted http://www.englishcompanion.com/pdfDocs/styleanalysis.pdf http://thssenglish.ca/resources/writing-essays/style_and_rhetorical_device.pdf https://www.kent.ac.uk/cewl/documents/online-resources/reading/Reading_Writing%20-%20Text%20Analysis%20-%20Identifying%20different%20writing%20styles%20-%20CE.pdf