Genocide • Definition: • The deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, or national group. • This includes any of the following: • Killing members of the group • Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group • Deliberately inflicting life conditions on the group to bring about it’s destruction • Imposing measures to prevent births within the group • Transferring children from one group to another
Stage 1: Classification • People are distinguished in all cultures based on: • Ethnicity • Race • Religion • Nationality
Stage 2: Symbolization • Giving names or symbols to the classifications • Ex: “Jews” or “gypsies” • Ex: Distinguish people by color or dress
Yellow Star: Jews forced to wear for identification. Blue Scarves: In Cambodia, people that wore blue scarves were from the Eastern Zone of Cambodia and marked for death. Symbols
Stage 3: Dehumanization • One group denies the humanity of the other group. • People are seen as animals, vermin, insects, or as diseases.
Stage 4: Organization • Genocide is always organized usually by : • State (government) • Informally (mobs) • Terrorist Groups
Janjaweed Militia Hitler and Nazi Soldiers Khmer Rouge Soldiers Organization
Stage 5: Polarization • This means to separate groups of people • Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda • Laws may forbid intermarriage and social interaction
Polarization • Example: Nuremburg Laws Section 1: Marriages between Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden. Marriages concluded in defiance of this law are void, even if, for the purpose of evading this law, they were concluded abroad. Section 2: Sexual relations outside marriage between Jews and nationals of German of kindred blood are forbidden. Section 3: Jews will not be permitted to employ female citizens of German or kindred blood under 45 years of age as domestic servants. Section 4: Jews are forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colors. 2. On the other hand they are permitted to display the Jewish colors. The exercise of this right is protected by the State.
Stage 6: Preparation • Victims are identified and separated out because of ethnic or religious identity. • Death lists are made. • Members are forced to wear identifying symbols. • Often segregated in ghettoes, forced into concentration camps, or kept in famine struck regions and starved.
Tuol Sleng Prison Auschwitz Concentration Camp Preparation
Stage 7: Extermination • Where “genocide” occurs. • Called extermination because the perpetrators do not believe the victims are fully human. • When the state (government) sponsors the genocide: armed forces work with militia’s to do the killings.
Gas Chamber at Auschwitz Victims of Tuol Sleng Prison Victim of Ukrainian Famine Extermination
Stage 8: Denial • Covering up evidence • Mass graves are dug up • Bodies are burned • Intimidate witnesses • Denial of committing a crime, blame is placed on the victims • Block investigations • Continue to govern until driven from power by force into exile. Left alone unless captured and put on trial