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The 8 Stages of Genocide

The 8 Stages of Genocide

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The 8 Stages of Genocide

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  1. The 8 Stages of Genocide According to Gregory H. Stanton with Genocide Watch

  2. 1. Classification • Distinguish b/w “us & them” • Ethnicity, race, religion, nationality • Occurs in all cultures • Societies w/ no mixed categories have greater chance of genocide **Must actively endorse understanding & tolerance, search for a common ground

  3. 2. Symbolization • Applying names/symbols/colors/dress to members of grps. • Yellow star for Jews • Blue scarf for Eastern Cambodians • Stages 1 & 2 are almost natural problem comes when combined w/ hatred

  4. Symbolism cont’d **Make hate symbols/speech illegal • Bulgaria refused the yellow star 80% of Jews went w/o it lost its significance **BUT…the ban has to be widely supported • “Hutu” & “Tutsi” were banned in Burundi, but code words just replaced them

  5. 3. Dehumanization • Members of grp. are not seen as human (rather animals, insects, disease) • Tutsis were referred to as cockroaches • Hate propaganda takes over (radios, posters, news) • Not protected as free speech under true democratic constitutions **Must be put down promptly! (shut down radio signals)

  6. 4. Organization • ALWAYS organized • State often uses militias (Janjaweed in Sudan) • Used as scapegoats (deny responsibility) • Well-trained militants can also form mobs or terrorist grps. **Militias must be forbidden, leaders denied rights, arms embargoes enacted

  7. 5. Polarization • Grps. ripped apart by extremists • Hate propaganda broadcasts separation; sometimes makes interaxn illegal • Silences/intimidates moderates • They stand greatest chance of stopping genocide, so killed 1st **Need security for moderates & human rights grps. **International sanctions on extremist coups d’états

  8. 6. Preparation • Victims recognized & separated out • Death lists, wear symbols • Moved into certain areas (ghettoes, camps, poverty stricken region) ** Must declare a Genocide Emergency prepare international intervention ** Prepare aid for future victims & refugees

  9. 7. Extermination • Mass killings • Often done by both armed forces & militia • Can lead to revenge killings ** Only solution is now fierce armed intervention • International responsibility to protect and provide aid • More impt. than individual national interests

  10. 8. Denial • Perpetrators cover up graves/evidence and coerce witnesses • Deny any crimes took place, blame victims, hamper investigations • Sure sign of future genocidal acts ** Must capture and take to national or internat’l court (Nuremberg, Rwanda)

  11. 20th & 21st Century Genocides • Armenian (1915-1918): by Ottoman Turks 1.5 mil Armenians, over 800,000 others • Jewish (1939-1945): by Nazi Germany  6 mil Jews, 3 mil Poles, 1.25 mil others • Cambodian (1975-1979): by Khmer Rouge 1.2 mil Cambodians

  12. 20th & 21st Century Genocides • Bosnia (1992-1995): by Serbs  200,000 Bosnian Muslims • Rwanda (1994): by Hutu militias  800,000 Tutsis • Darfur (2003*- ): by Arab govn’t backed militia  400,000 killed, 1.3 mil displaced non-Arabs (Fur, Zaghawa, Masalit) (There are more, esp. by forced famines!!)