computer Integrated manufacturing Larry Whitman firstname.lastname@example.org (316) 691-5907 (316) 978-3742 Industrial & Manufacturing Enterprise Department The Wichita State University http://www.mrc.twsu.edu/whitman/classes/ie775
CIM - Must be linked to strategy • What is meant by strategy, vision, mission, values?
Manufacturing Environment Weaknesses Strengths Opportunities Threats
Goals Where we are now Where we want to be Goals Environmental Assessment
Obstacle Obstacle Obstacle Obstacles Where we are now Where we want to be Goals Environmental Assessment
Obstacle Obstacle Obstacle Strategies - consume resources Where we are now Strategy Where we want to be Goals Strategy Environmental Assessment
Obstacle Obstacle Obstacle Objectives Where we are now Where we want to be Goals Strategy Objective Environmental Assessment Objective Objective
What is a Process? • a set of activities that, taken together, produce a result of value to a customer
Strategic Visioning • What is a vision?
VISION & STRATEGY A Passion for BETTER - FASTER - CHEAPER PROCESS PEOPLE TECHNOLOGY Strategic Visioning
Values Customer Expectations Mission Vision Purpose A Process Output/ Outcome Input Activity
Vision Statement • Appropriate • Inspiring • Directing • Focusing • Guiding • Unique
Vision Statement A vision statement can be used as a marketing tool as well as an inspiration to employees: Ford's vision: Quality is job 1. ADM's vision: Supermarket to the world If the vision motivates employees, it will influence customers.
Mission What the organization SHOULD be doing
Mission Statement Broadest strategic planning choices of what the organization should do • Products/services • Markets • Customers • Competitors
Values Guides the organization’s BEHAVIOR
Values • Communicates what is and what is not right • Provide context for decision making • Enduring • Widely shared
Values Statement • Based on values of organization • Commits resources to achieve vision • Not a slogan • Lived everyday • Drives behavior of employees at all levels
Statement of Purpose "We will create a corporation in which all people, particularly technical employees, are respected and are able to work to the best of their ability." "We will not imitate the products of our competitors, but will try to create goods that have never existed in our market before." "We will focus on the consumer market and apply the most advanced technology to the consumer products area." Sony Corporation, 1946 Total Assets: $500 I know those guys!
Assignment For your own (pretend) company, develop • Vision • Mission • Values • Quiz question - next week!
"It must be remembered that there is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful of success, no more dangerous to manage, than the creation of a new system." • -Niccolo Machiavelli 1513AD • “Be wary of those who think a planned system is a panacea for their problems.” • -Mike Ballard 1995AD
CIM - Modeling • Why model? • What is a model? • What is a model for?
Enterprise Modeling Overview • All models are wrong. Some models are useful. -- George Box, Statistics for Experiments • Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. -- Albert Einsten • When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe. -- John Muir • People don't argue with their own data. -- Bob Pike • Reality is made up of circles but we see straight lines. -- Peter Senge, The 5th Discipline • Solving a problem simply means representing it so as to make the solution transparent. -- Herbert Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, 2nd ed., pg. 153 • Systems models are best thought of as tools for coalescing people to do something together, helping them to undertake a systems-improvement task. -- Marvin Weisbord, Productive Workplaces, pg. 233
Enterprise Engineering An Enterprise is a complex system of cultural, process, and technological components that interact to accomplish strategic goals. People Accomplish Organizational Goals Processes Technology
Approach ... Research Focused onPrinciples and Practices ... • theory • abstraction • design • implementation Focus of Study Paradigm Reference Disciplines Principles & Practices Research Agenda Education/Professionalism
Organizational View Activity View Process View Resource View Business Rule View Principles and Practices Abstraction or Representation Activity: Functions performed by enterprise (what is done) Process : Time sequenced set of processes (how it is done) Organizational: How the enterprise organizes itself Business Rule: Defines the entities managed by the enterprise and the rules governing their relationships Resource: Details the resources managed by the enterprise
Principles and Practices Abstraction or Representation Enterprise EP8 Category 1 Enterprise Processes Category 3 Enterprise Processes EP3 EP1 EP4 EP2 EP6 EP5 EP7 Category 2 Enterprise Processes
What is a model? • A model is generally regarded as a representation of reality. • Details that are unnecessary are not included
Why do I need Modeling? • To analyze and design the enterprise and its processes prior to implementation • To help reduce complexity • To communicate a common understanding • To gain stakeholder buy-in • To act as a documentation tool for ISO 9000, TQM and other efforts
What is a model used for? • To analyze and design the enterprise and its processes prior to implementation • To help reduce complexity • To communicate a common understanding of the system • To gain stakeholder buy-in • To act as a documentation tool for ISO 9000, TQM, Concurrent Engineering, and other efforts.
Why Model? • To analyze and design the enterprise and its processes prior to implementation • To help reduce complexity • To communicate a common understanding of the system • To gain stakeholder buy-in • To act as a documentation tool for ISO 9000, TQM, Concurrent Engineering, and other efforts.
What is Enterprise Modeling? • An abstract representation of the various views of the enterprise and its processes • Provides a graphical, textual, or mathematical model of the enterprise • Includes only those aspects of interest
EM Definition • "a symbolic representation of the enterprise and the things that it deals with. It contains representations of individual facts, objects, and relationships that occur within the enterprise" (Presley 1997). • “one representation of a perception of an enterprise. It can be made of several submodels including… The content of an EM is whatever the enterprise considers important for its operations.” (Vernadat 96)
Model Views (ARRI Five View Approach) • Business Rule (or Information) View • Activity View • Business Process View • Resource View • Organization View
Views (ARRI Five View Approach) • Business Rule (or Information) View defines the entities managed by the enterprise and the rules governing their relationships and interactions, • Activity View defines the functions performed by the enterprise (what is done), • Business Process View defines a time-sequenced set of processes (how it is done), • Resource View defines the resources and capabilities managed by the enterprise, • Organization View describes how the enterprise is organized which includes the set of constraints and rules governing how it manages itself and its processes.
Categories of Processes • (1) those processes which transform external constraints into internal constraints • (set direction), • (2) those processes which acquire and make ready required resources, and • (3) those processes which use resources to produce enterprise results.
Static and Dynamic • Static • Point in time of a dynamic model • Flow paths • Helpful in determining what items and functions • Dynamic • System behavior over time • Series of states are modeled • Useful for measuring/scoping resources
Why Static to Dynamic • Allows for “best” of both worlds • simplifies model development • adds rigor in review process • Single Model Master • Understandability of enterprise enhanced
IDEF • Integration DEFinition • U.S. Air Force’s Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) (late 1980’s) • Many different IDEF methods • Each method is useful for describing a particular perspective • (IDEF0), functional or activity modeling • (IDEF1), information modeling • (IDEF1x), data modeling • (IDEF3), process description capture • (IDEF4), object oriented design • (IDEF5), ontology capture
IDEF0 • What is it? • A structured modeling method used to develop a functional or activity model of an enterprise. • Describes what is done without regard to sequence • When is it used? • To build the Activity View of the enterprise • To act as front end to simulation and activity based costing • Available Tools • Design/IDEF • AIO from Knowledge Based Systems, Inc..
IDEF0 • activity (or function) is represented by the boxes • inputs are represented by the arrows flowing into the left hand • outputs are represented by arrows flowing out the right hand • arrows flowing into the top portion of the box represent constraints or controls • arrows flowing into the bottom of the activity box are the mechanisms • Order of boxes do not imply sequence! • Top Down
IDEF1x • What is it? • A tool to develop data or business rule models • Builds Entity Relationship Diagrams • When is it used? • To define the Business Rule View of the enterprise • To design relational databases and systems • Tools • ERWin
IDEF3 • What is it? • A method used to describe the steps and decisions of a process • Describes how things are done • When is it used? • To build the Business Process View of the enterprise • To build structured descriptions of sequences and cause and effect relationships • Tools • ProSim from Knowledge Based Systems, Inc..
IDEF3 • process flow diagramsand elaboration diagrams • Unit of Behaviors (UOBs) • Junctions • Links • Order of boxes do imply sequence! • Top Down