Learning Objectives • Define nursing research • Clinical nursing research • Sources of nursing knowledge • Basic research & applied research • Goals of conducting research • Qualitative & quantitative research • Outcome research • History of nursing research
What is research? • Systematic inquiry using disciplined methods to solve problems and to develop, refine and expand a body of knowledge (Uses a systematic and objective process • this knowledge is about issues of importance to the nursing profession.(Analyzes phenomena of importance to nursing) • The goal of nursing research is to improve patient care
Definitions It includes studies concerning: - nursing practice; -nursing education; - nursing administration, and - nurses themselves • Clinical nursing research: indicates nursing research that involves clients or studies that have the potential for affecting the care of clients (subjects or animals research).
Features of nursing research • Systematic search for and validation of knowledge about issues of importance to the nursing profession (Polit & Hungler) • Being concerned with knowledge that directly influences clinical nursing practice (Burns & Grove). 3. Nursing research could be in nursing practice, nursing administration, education.
Features of nursing research Cont. 4. Nursing research (mostly concerned with clinical problems) and research in nursing is the broader study of the nursing profession and includes historical with ethical, historical and political studies.
Clinical Nursing Research • Focuses on clients/studies • Positively affects care of clients
Clinical Nursing Research • Consists of patient symptom management • Addresses behavioral interventions • Targets prevention and health promotion
Variety of sources guide • Nursing practice • Nursing education • Nursing administration
Sources of nursing knowledge • Tradition: handing down knowledge from one generation to another and leads to actions that occur because it has been always done that way. • Experts or people with authority • Trial and error • Disciplined research:objective and reliable source
Past Knowledge • Built on Trial and Error Processes • Alternatives tried till one is found • The approach is not systematic • Documentation of success is not existent
The Scientific Research Method • Best source for research knowledge • Most reliable of all sources • Very objective in its process
Scientific Research methods • Is a process in which observable, verifiable data are systematically collected from our surroundings through our sense to describe, explain, or predict events. • Scientific research: involve selecting and defining a problem, formulating research questions or hypothesis or both, collecting data, analyzing data, and reporting results.
Features of Scientific Research Process • Empirical data • Objective data • Data gathered via senses • Unbiased data and facts • Not influenced by researcher
Scientific Research and Problem Solving Approach • Similarities • Identify problem areas • Establish plans of action • Collect data and information • Evaluate data results
Purposes are Varied • Scientific research • Broader in scope • Obtains data for generalization • Applies knowledge to other people/settings
Purposes are Varied • Problem solving approach • Specific in scope • Seeks a solution to a problem in specific setting • Uses knowledge for people in specific setting
Generalization • For the research scientific process • An important characteristic • Important for assessing quality of studies
Nursing Research Domains • Nursing practice • Nursing education • Nursing administration
Type of Research Process • Basic versus applied • Difference between types • Difficult to determine • Think of two as a continuum
Basic Research • Pure or fundamental research • Generates new knowledge • Does not solve immediate problems • Major purpose is to obtain empirical data • Develops, tests and refines theories • Uses laboratory animals as subjects
Applied Research is conducted to gain knowledge that can used in a practical setting. • Uses the new knowledge • Solves immediate problems • It focused mainly on nursing intervention for patients and their families.
Goal of applied research • Solutions to problems • Changes in practice • Most Nursing Research StudiesUse applied research
Goals for Conducting Research • Promote Evidence-based nursing practice • Credibility of the nursing profession • Accountability for nursing practice • Cost effectiveness of nursing care
Evidence-Based Nursing Practice (EBNP) • Clinical decisions based upon • Best research evidence • Nurses clinical expertise • Health care preferences of clients
Credibility of Nursing Profession • Professional vs. vocational • one criteria for a profession is to Establishing own body of knowledge • The most valid method of developing this knowledge base is scientific research.
Credibility of Nursing Profession • Research helps determine • What nurses do • How nurses do it • How knowledge is gathered • What makes nurses different
Accountability for Nursing Practice • Increase independence ® more accountability • Promote actions based on sound rationale • Gain knowledge via scientific research • Foster research article critiques • Use findings in everyday practice
Cost-Effectiveness — A Nursing Responsibility • Gain education in business and finances • Help patients understand the importance of nursing • Know nursing is large part of institutions budget • Validate nursing and its activities with research
Quantitative research: is concerned with objectivity, tight controls over the research situation, and the ability to generalize findings. • Qualitative research: is concerned with the subjective meaning of an experience to an individual. • Outcome research: Focuses on measurable outcomes of interventions with certain patient populations.
Quantitative Research • Objectivity • Tight controls • Generalization of findings
Qualitative Research • Subjectivity • No controls • Not able to generalize findings
What Type of Research are Nurses Doing? • Initially, quantitative • Focus change-qualitative • Qualitative research is increasing
Outcomes Research • A new “buzzword” in health care • Nursing always concerned with outcomes
Focus of Outcomes Research • Measurable outcomes • Research addresses interventions • Research uses certain patient populations
Outcomes Research Influences • High cost of health care • Nursing care that is cost effective • Services purchased that improve client health
Design for Outcomes Research • Differences • Design • Methods • Sampling Procedures
Specific Research Roles for Nurses • Principal investigator • Member of research team • Identifier of researchable problems • Evaluator of research findings • User of research findings • Patient client advocate during studies • Subject participant in studies
Principal Investigator • Beginning nurse researcher • Small-scale surveys • Independent researcher • Special research preparation
Member of Research Team • Data collection for study • Administer experimental interventions • Enlist bedside nurses and health care leaders • Makes impact on health care outcomes
Identifier of Researchable Problems • All levels of nursing preparation • Ideal situation for bedside nurses • Patient related problems • Medication administration • Chronic issues
Evaluator of Research Findings • Role for all nurses • Read articles on the process • American Journal of Nursing (December, 2006) • Continuing Education Hours • Review critiques guidelines in the textbook
User of Research Findings • Tradition, no longer acceptable practice • Evidence-based research (EBR) for changes • Findings change practice • Results to improve client care
User of Research Findings Cont. • Role of Research Utilization (RU) vs. EBR • RU — findings into practice • EBR — searching for best evidence
Patient/Client Advocate • Nurses act in both roles • Ethical considerations • Study explanations • Participant support
Nursing Education • Florence Nightingale (FN) • Tradition and Authority • Statistician and Researcher
Paradigm Shift in Nursing Education • Education levels of nurse preparation • University school started in 1909
The Start of Research Studies • Other disciplines • Sociology • Psychology • Education • Nurses and advanced preparation
The Goldmark Report • Report started in 1923 • A national study
The Goldmark Report • Studied the educational preparation • Nurse teachers • Nurse administrators • Public health nurses • Clinical Experiences of nursing students • Many inadequacies identified