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  1. Music and art are important reflections of a culture and time period. Based on the above statement, and the song “Today” what are our current cultural values? Based on the above statement, and the song “Dies Irae” what do you think Medieval Culture’s values were? What makes you think that?

  2. Aim: What were the Middle Ages?

  3. What was the Role of the Catholic Church? • Because almost everyone in Western Europe was catholic, it provided unity that hadn’t existed since the fall of Rome. • The Catholic Church dominated life in the Middle Ages, because they controlled salvation. • The church served many functions, maintaining schools; and promoting the arts (music, painting, architecture); they kept birth, death and marriage records; and collected a tithe (religious tax).

  4. The Clergy used the threat of Excommunication(being kicked out of the church) to control people. • Eventually the church got so powerful that they became corrupt. This eventually leads to the Protestant Reformation in the 1500's.

  5. What Were some Characteristics of the Middle Ages (500-1350) ? • Education declines, and survival becomes the main focus of society. Cultural opportunities are no longer available to most people. • Due to unsafe roads, trade declines, and society becomes self-sufficient. • Central government declined and was replaced by smaller local government(Feudalism)

  6. What is Feudalism? • Feudalism is defined as a system of government based on land ownership. • It started as a way to have protection from barbarian raiders. • Feudalism had three main functions, to control the political, social and economic lives of the people.

  7. Who was Charlemagne? • In 768 AD, a man named Charlemagne became king of the Franks. • Pope Leo III crowned him Emperor on Christmas Day in 800 in an attempt to revive the Roman Empire and bring an end to feudalism. He then became known as the “Father of Europe” • He failed to achieve lasting unity, because when he died, so did his Empire. • His major achievement was that he christianized most of Europe.

  8. Aim: How did Feudalism affect Europe? “The King of France, at the height of his strength, only ruled about 17% of the country…”

  9. How did Feudalism Affect Politics (Gov’t)? • Nobility (land owners) controlled the courts and the law. The nobles had their own soldiers to protect their land. • The soldiers consisted of Knights, or people who were given land by the nobility. • TheNobilityowned all of the land. The nobility granted small areas of land to people, called a fief. Each fiefhad other people who lived and worked on the land. These people are known as serfs.

  10. How did Feudalism Affect Economy? • Manorialismis an economic system that is based upon land ownership. • There was no trade, and no currency (money). • Serfs were bound to the land, they worked in exchange for protection and security.

  11. What was the Feudal Social Structure? • In the Middle Ages, social classes were very rigid and social mobility was impossible. People were born into their social class, and their class depended on what they did. • The Classes were King, Clergy, Lord, Vassals (lesser lords), Knights (soldiers) and serfs. • Serfs were the lowest rung on the social ladder, and clergy were the highest rung on the social ladder. • Only about 5% of the population were Nobility. The rest were serfs.

  12. Aim: How did the Middle Ages come to an end?

  13. What factors caused the end of the Middle Ages? • The Crusades • Revival of Trade and the rise of cities • Declining power of the Church • The Black Death

  14. What were the Crusades? • The Crusades were a series of religious wars fought between Christian Europe and the Muslim Middle East. The first Crusade started in 1095 AD. • Pope Urban started the Crusades with a speech at Clermont, asking knights to help reclaim the Middle East. He appealed to the Code of Chivalry all knights had to follow. • In total there were 14 Crusades, spanning over 208 years. • The “objective” of the Crusades was to capture the Holy Land, specifically the city of Jerusalem.

  15. How did the Crusades Change the World? • Cultural Diffusion started, with goods and ideas from the Middle East being sold in Europe. Cultural diffusion stimulated trade, and the Manorial System declined. • Serfs began to leave the manor, as there were no longer regular invasions. • The power of the Feudal system declined as money returns to Europe. The nobility wanted goods from the Middle East, so a new merchant class emerged. • Cities started to re-emerge in Europe as trade centers. Guilds were formed.

  16. Why did the Church decline? • By the 1300s, the Catholic Church became corrupt, focusing more on gaining wealth, land and power than the spiritual life of the people. • The clergy were so corrupt that the people began to lose confidence in their leadership ability. People began to look for alternatives. Secular life became more attractive as the economy in Europe improved. • Simony- buying and selling of Church positions. • Nepotism- giving a position to a relative. • Sale of Indulgences – A “Get Into Heaven Free” ticket

  17. How did the Black Death affect Europe? • Around 40% of Europe’s population died as a result of the disease as it swept through Europe. • Impacts: • Fewer workers were available. For those that survived, it helped improve their living conditions. • Loss of confidence in the Church. • Attention turned to humans, rather than God.

  18. Aim: What was the Renaissance?

  19. What was the Renaissance? • Renaissance means rebirth. This was a period of “rebirth” for Europe, when Europeans discovered the achievements of the Greeks and Romans. It was a “rebirth” of Greek and Roman ideas. • It started in 1350 in Florence, Italy and lasted until the 1500s. • The Renaissance was caused by the Black Death and the decline of church power. • People lost faith in Religion and started to look at their own lives on Earth.

  20. What is a Philosophy? • Philosophy is the study of “fundamental problems” such as the meaning of life and the search for wisdom. • Philosophies are generally distinguished by being an “ism” • “ism” - forming the name of a system, school of thought or theory based on the name of its subject or object or alternatively on the name of its founder

  21. What were the 5 characteristics of the Renaissance? • Individualism: This philosophy was based on the belief that man was capable of developing his own unique talents. • Renaissance leaders urged people to find and develop their own special interests • Individualism values independence and individual goals. • A person who had many unique talents was a “Renaissance Man”. Italian painter Leonardo Da Vinci is a Renaissance Man because he was an artist as well as inventor, mathematician, scientist and writer.

  22. II. Humanism: This philosophy was based on the belief that human emotions and feelings were qualities that should be valued. • Literature was now based upon Secular not Religious concepts. • Latin was no longer the language of Europe. Humanists began to use their native languages to reach greater audiences. • The use of vernacular (native language) led to increased feelings of nationalism and reduction of Church power. • Dantéwas the first humanist writer.

  23. Realism: Paintings now began to portray the human condition, as well as portray religious people with human qualities. Paintings looked more realistic due to the use of perspective and oil paints.

  24. IV. Skepticism: People were encouraged people to question everything that they saw to discover the truth. • Skepticism is a system of doubt based off of the ideas of Socrates • In the Renaissance, it was doubting certain religious beliefs and trying to understand their natural surroundings.

  25. Secularism: A philosophy developed which encouraged people to live their lives as they saw fit. Religion no longer had to be an individuals whole life. • Secularism is based off of skepticism and tolerance for other ways of life. • “Separation of church and state,” freedom of religion and moving away from traditional religious values are characteristics of secularism.

  26. Aim: What were the results of the Renaissance? “He who neglects what is done for what ought to be done sooner effects his ruin than his preservation.”- Macchiavelli

  27. Who were the Prominent Figures of the Renaissance? • Danté – An Italian Author who wrote the Divine Comedy • Leonardo Da Vinci – An Italian Inventor and Painter. • Michaelangelo – The most famous of Italian Painters • NiccolóMachiavelli– an Italian writer. He wrote The Prince. • Boccaccio– an Italian Author, Boccaccio wrote The Decameron

  28. “He who is blinded by ambition, raises himself to a position whence he cannot mount higher, must therefore fall to greatest loss.” – NiccoloMacchiavelli, The Prince “A prince should therefore have no other aim or thought no take up any other thing for his study but war and organization and discipline, for that is the only art necessary for one who commands.” – Macchiavelli, The Prince

  29. “…in men and women alike it first betrayed itself by the emergence of certain tumors in the groin or the armpits, some of which grew as large as a common apple, others as an egg, some more, some less, which the common folk called buboes. From the two said parts of the body this deadly buboes soon began to propagate (spread) and spread itself in all directions indifferently; after which the form of the malady (sickness) began to change, black spots or livid making their appearance in many cases on the arm or the thigh or elsewhere, now few and large, now minute and numerous. And as the buboes had been and still were an infallible (never wrong) token of approaching death, such also were these spots on whomsoever they showed themselves. Which maladies seemed to set entirely at naught both the art of the physician (doctor) and the virtues of physician; indeed, whether it was that the disorder was of a nature to defy such treatment, or that the physicians were at fault…” – Boticelli, The Decameron.

  30. The Medici Family – A wealthy family from Florence, Italy. They paid artists to create great works for them. • The Popes – The leaders of the Catholic Church. They hired artists and architects to create new religious buildings and paintings.