The Duel for North America 1689 - 1763
New France • Edict of Nantes in 1598 - ended religious wars in France. • French found New France - Quebec in 1608.
Samuel de Champlain • The “Father of New France”
French influence in the New World • French traders and explorers made pacts with the Huron Indians of the lower Great Lakes.
French fur traders, the Coureurs de Bois and Voyageurs, lived among and intermarried with the Native Americans.
Jesuit missionaries sought, often forcibly, to convert the Indians to Catholicism.
Robert de la Salle • 1682 - French explorer de la Salle canoed down the Mississippi searching for the mouth of the river. • He failed to find the opening through the delta and was killed in Texas in 1687.
French Expansion • 1701 - Louis XIV orders the establishment of the colony of Louisiana and settlements in the interior. • Detroit founded on Lake Huron by Antoine Cadillac
The First World Wars • 1688 - 97 --- The War of the League of Augsburg (King William’s War) • 1701 - 1713 --- The War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War)
1713 - Treaty of Utrecht ends Queen Anne's War • England gains Acadia, renamed Nova Scotia, New Foundland and Hudson’s Bay • Period of “Salutary Neglect” begins in America
1739 - War of Jenkin's Ear • war fought between Spain and England over trade rights.
1740 - 48 -- War of the Austrian Succession. • (King George’s War) • Spain and France fight England
1744 - Lancaster Treaty. • Treaty signed with Indians in Pennsylvania
1745 - • New England troops capture Fort Louisbourg on the St. Lawrence River
1748 • Ohio Company of Virginia founded. • Land sought in the Ohio Valley.
1748 -- Treaty of Aix-la- Chapelle • ends the War of the Austrian Succession. • Ft. Louisbourg returned to France - New England is outraged.
1753 • Susquehanna Company founded. • George Washington’s first mission to the Ohio Valley.
Americans continue settling in disputed Ohio territory. • French answer by building a string of forts.
1754 • Virginians sent to build fort at site of modern Pittsburgh (chosen by young surveyor George Washington).
The site is the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny that form the Ohio River.
This is seen as an act of war by France, who already had its own fort there -- Ft. Duquesne. • Virginia militia under Washington open fire on French troops -- starting the French and Indian War.
The French and Indian War (1754 - 1763) • Washington is defeated in his first battle - July 4, 1754 at Fort Necessity.
Colonists meet at Albany Congress to arrange a common defense -- Ben Franklin publishes cartoon “Join, or Die.”
The initial purpose was to keep the Iroquois on the side of the British. • Franklin’s “Albany Plan of Union” is agreed to by the delegates but rejected by the colonial legislatures and the English Parliament.
1755 -- Braddock Blunders • General Braddock’s “redcoats” and colonial “buckskins” are routed again at Fort Dusquesne. • Braddock is mortally wounded. • British force 4,000 French Acadians to move to Louisiana.
1756 • French capture Fort Oswego • Earl of Loudoun assumes command of British Colonial forces
British forces fail in attempts to invade Canada. • Indian raids into colonies and military defeats followed until 1757.
1757 • William Pitt becomes British Prime Minister - reorganizes the army.
1757 - French take Fort William Henry. • 1758 - British capture Forts Louisbourg, Frontenac and Dusquesne
British take Quebec in 1759 - General Wolfe dies in the battle on the Plains of Abraham. • French General Montcalm is also killed.
Montreal falls in 1760. • Paris Peace Treaty (1763) gives all French territory east of the Mississippi to England -- Spain takes Louisiana, England gets Florida.
Friction between England and the Colonies • American colonists felt they had defeated the French and Indians and looked down on English regular army.
Western Expansion • Americans wanted to settle new lands acquired in the war. • Settlers begin pouring into western New York and Pennsylvania and along the upper Ohio river.